Directory of Researchers

ISHII Hiroaki
Graduate School of Agricultural Science / Department of Bioresource Science
Professor
Forestry
Last Updated :2024/01/31

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • <Faculty / Graduate School / Others>

    Graduate School of Agricultural Science / Department of Bioresource Science
  • <Related Faculty / Graduate School / Others>

    Faculty of Agriculture / Department of Bioresource Science

Degree

  • Ph.D.

Teaching

Research at Kobe

Research Activities

Research Interests

  • tree physiology
  • forest ecology

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Forest science

Committee Memberships

  • Jan. 2021 - Present, Forests, Editor
  • Oct. 2019 - Present, 西宮市教育委員会, 文化財審議委員(天然記念物担当)
  • Sep. 2019 - Present, Associate Editor in Chief, Editor
  • 2018 - Present, Forest Ecology and Management, Editorial Board
  • Sep. 2016 - Present, Tree Physiology, Editorial Review Board
  • Jan. 2012 - Present, Ecological Research, Associate Editor in Chief
  • 日本生態学会, 近畿地区委員

Awards

  • Nov. 2019 日本樹木医学会, 学生ポスター賞, 都市林における外来樹木トウネズミモチと在来種の分布パターン

    原千夏・野口結子・岡部桃子・柏木圭太・石井弘明

  • Sep. 2019 日本緑化工学会, 学生ポスター賞, クスノキの乾燥耐性に寄与する木部細胞

    山田佳乃・石井弘明・黒田慶子

  • Mar. 2019 日本生態学会, 優秀ポスター賞(生理生態部門), クスノキ老大木の通水構造(2) 老木と成木の通水構造の比較

    NOGUCHI YUIKO, KURODA KEIKO, ISHII HIROAKI

    Japan society

  • Mar. 2019 日本森林学会, 130回森林学会大会学生ポスター賞, ポスター発表

    YAMADA KANO, HARA CHINATSU, NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    Japan society

  • Apr. 2018 International Congress of the East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies, Best Poster Award, Height-related changes in hydraulic structure of old Cinnamomum camphora: trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and safety

    NOGUCHI YUIKO, HORIKAWA SHINICHIRO, HARACHINATSU, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    International society

  • Sep. 2017 日本緑化工学会, 学生ポスター賞, ビル風による都市緑化樹の衰退要因の解明

    NAMBA YOUKI, INOUE SUMIHIRO, SHIRAKI AYUMI, NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI

    Japan society

  • Nov. 2016 地域政策研究会, 第1回貝原俊民美しい兵庫づくり賞, 西宮神社えびすの森における住民参加による生態系の保全と復元

    ISHII HIROAKI

    全国ではじめて市民参加による社叢林保全の仕組みを構築したことによる地域貢献

    Publisher

  • Mar. 2016 日本森林学会, 日本森林学会賞, 高木の樹高成長制限に関する生理生態学的研究

    ISHII HIROAKI

    Japan society

  • Sep. 2015 日本緑化工学会, 第45回日本緑化工学会 最優秀ポスター賞(学術交流部門), 施工後35年が経過した緑化地における木本群落回復の定量的評価

    HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    Japan society

  • Mar. 2015 日本森林学会, 第126回 日本森林学会大会 優秀ポスター賞, 最大樹高に達した異樹齢アカマツにおける葉の生理特性の比較

    AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    Japan society

  • Mar. 2014 日本生態学会, 第61回 日本生態学会大会 優秀ポスター賞, 秋田スギの梢端葉の水ストレスは貯水機能によって改善される?

    AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI, KUROSA KEIKO

    Japan society

  • Sep. 2013 日本緑化工学会, 第23回 日本緑化工学会森林学会大会 最優秀ポスター賞, 神戸層群における天然林再生を目的とした法面緑化:10年後の経過報告

    HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    Japan society

  • Sep. 2012 日本緑化工学会、景観生態学会、生態工学会, 第2回 Ecology, Landscape, and Restoration合同学会 最優秀ポスター賞, 強度剪定後の緑化樹木の回復過程の研究

    OKATANI DAISUKE, KAJII CHIE, ISHII HIROAKI

    Japan society

  • Mar. 2012 日本生態学会, Japanese Ecological Society Ohshima Award, 石井弘明

    Ishii, Hiroaki

  • Dec. 2011 日本生態学会 近畿支部, 日本生態学会近畿地区会 大会奨励賞, 樹上100mの水ストレス?セコイアメスギの葉の水分生理特性

    AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI, SILLETT STEVE

    Japan society

  • Nov. 2008 日本農学会, 農学進歩賞, 森林の光合成・炭素固定促進を目的とした樹木生理学的研究

    Hiroaki Ishii

  • Apr. 2007 日本森林学会, 日本森林学会奨励賞, Exploiring the relationships among canopy structure, productivity and biodiversity of temperate forest ecosystems

    石井 弘明

Published Papers

  • Md. Abdul Maleque, Jannatul Ferdous, Ashika Akhter Shitel, Jaher Ahmed, A. F. M. Saiful Islam, Md. Fuad Mondal, Kamrul Hassan, Md. Abdur Razzak Choudhury, H. Roaki Ishii

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 01 Sep. 2023, Agroforestry Systems

    Scientific journal

  • Nao Okubo, Sumihiro Inoue, H. Ishii

    To prepare and manage urban greenspace for a hotter future, we must select trees that can tolerate or acclimate to high temperatures. Here, we compared tolerance and acclimation to high temperatures among nine urban tree species in Japan. Saplings were exposed to heat from different times (early and mid-summer) during the growing season in a greenhouse. With the exception of Ginko, heating in early summer did not affect whole-tree health, suggesting that most urban tree species may be able to acclimate to higher temperatures during the early growing season. However, continued exposure to higher temperatures, as well as heating from mid-summer, had negative effects on tree health, leading to wilting/browning, especially for evergreen broadleaved species whose leaves mature slowly. Cornus florida, Styrax japonicus and Morella rubra were the most vulnerable to heating, such that all heated saplings had died by the end of summer. At the leaf level, leaf maturation of the deciduous species and Morella was negatively affected by heating, whereas that of Eurya emarginata and Euonymus japonicas were not affected. These two species also showed heat tolerance, having a higher T50 (temperature where leaf quantum yield declined to 50% of maximum value due to heat stress) compared to other species, as well as heat acclimation, where T50 was higher for the heated saplings compared to the control. Our results indicate that, while some species that cannot recover from heat damage in early summer could die, others can acclimate to sustained high temperatures, as well as to late summer heat. As heatwaves are expected to become more frequent and severe due to global warming, tree species need to be screened individually to assess their ability to tolerate or acclimate to high temperature.

    MDPI AG, 14 Aug. 2023, Forests, 14 (8), 1639 - 1639

    Scientific journal

  • Naoto Kawata, Takahiko Yoshioka, Kana Hotta, Wakana Aoi Azuma, H. Roaki Ishii

    Informa UK Limited, 14 May 2023, Journal of Forest Research, 1 - 8

    Scientific journal

  • Rebecca Rooney, H. Roaki Ishii, Molly A. Cavaleri

    In trees, leaf anatomy acclimates to the vertical light and hydraulic gradients within the crown. Intra-crown trait variation reflects phenotypic plasticity, which is considered a measure of individual-level acclimation to environmental variation. Here, we compared plasticity of leaf anatomical traits among trees from five regional populations of Fagus crenata and assessed the contribution of these traits to leaf mass per area (LMA). Intra-crown variation of LMA was larger than variation among trees from different sites, suggesting phenotypic plasticity is greater than genetic variation. After intra-crown light effects were removed, LMA increased with increasing height, suggesting, in addition to light acclimation, hydraulic limitation drives intra-crown variation. LMA was positively correlated with leaf thickness and negatively correlated with mesophyll porosity. Leaf thickness accounted for 39% of the variation in LMA, while palisade thickness accounted for 62% of the variation in leaf thickness, suggesting light was the main driver of leaf thickness. Thicker leaves also had denser mesophyll and thicker epidermal layers, both acclimations to low water availability (i.e., hydraulic limitation). Among the traits, intra-crown plasticity was highest for mesophyll porosity, while there was no difference among trees from different sites in overall trait plasticity. Our results indicate phenotypic plasticity of leaf traits in F. crenata is mainly driven by light availability, while some traits, such as leaf density, may be driven by hydraulic limitation. In regional populations with high phenotypic plasticity, individual-level acclimation may buffer negative effects of future climate change on growth and productivity of F. crenata.

    Wiley, 04 Oct. 2022, Ecological Research, 38 (2), 265 - 278, English

    Scientific journal

  • Wakana A. Azuma, Natsuki Komada, Yuya Ogawa, Hiroaki Ishii, Akira Nakanishi, Yuiko Noguchi, Mamoru Kanzaki

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC, Jan. 2022, Plant Ecology, 223 (1), 99 - 112

    Scientific journal

  • Chinatsu Hara, Sumihiro Inoue, H. Roaki Ishii, Momoko Okabe, Masaya Nakagaki, Hajime Kobayashi

    Key message Tolerance and acclimation of photosynthesis to warmer growing conditions among nine urban tree species was species-specific indicating that individual screening is needed to prepare urban greenspace for a warmer future. To prepare and manage urban greenspace for a warmer future, we must select trees that can tolerate or acclimate to warmer growing conditions. Here, we compared tolerance and acclimation of photosynthesis to warmer growing conditions among urban trees species in Japan. Two paired experiments were installed where saplings of nine species were grown outside at two locations (warm- and cool-temperate climates) and in a greenhouse with and without passive warming. We compared the temperature where quantum yield declined to 50% of maximum value (T-50) due to excess heat (50-60 degrees C) and the thermal optimum for photosynthesis (T-opt) among species. For two deciduous and three evergreen species, T-50 was higher for saplings grown in warm- than cool-temperate climate. T-50 was also higher under passive warming for three species, of which two evergreen species (Morella rubra, Quercus myrsinifolia) showed marked increases (5-7 degrees C). T-opt was higher under passive warming in three of six species examined, but the acclimation response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to warming was highly species-specific. We inferred that M. rubra and Q. myrsinifolia, which acclimated consistently to warmer growing conditions in both experiments, are heat-hardy species. Our results also suggest warm-temperate evergreen species are not necessarily more tolerant of warmer growing conditions than cool-temperate deciduous species. For example, despite its warm-temperate origin, Machilus thumbergii showed no acclimation response and photosynthetic rates were lower under passive warming. Our results indicate species need to be screened individually to assess their physiological tolerance and acclimation potential to warmer climate.

    SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, Dec. 2021, TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, 35 (6), 1793 - 1806, English

    Scientific journal

  • H. Roaki Ishii, Chinatsu Hara, Keita Kashiwagi, Momoko Okabe, Yuiko Noguchi, Muneto Hirobe

    Preventing invasion of exotic species into urban forests is important for sustaining native species diversity. In Japan, Ligustrum lucidum, an invasive tree, has become widespread in urban areas. Here, we investigated the spread of L. lucidum in a semi-natural, urban shrine forest to infer which native species' preferred habitats may be affected. L. lucidum was most abundant near the artificially created forest edge where canopy trees are pruned regularly. Spatial distribution of L. lucidum overlapped with those of two native species (Cinnamomum japonicum, Quercus glauca), but was segregated from the other three native species. We also compared leaf functional traits between L. lucidum and the native species to infer functional niche overlap. L. lucidum exhibited greater plasticity of leaf functional traits compared to native species and its leaf functional traits were similar with Ci. japonicum, Ilex rotunda and Q. glauca, but not with Camelia japonica and Ternstroemia gymnanthera. Our results suggest that, currently, the preferred habitat and realized functional niche of L. lucidum overlaps with those of Ci. japonicum and Q. glauca. High plasticity of leaf functional traits contributing to shade tolerance may allow L. lucidum to expand its spatial distribution in this forest, affecting other native species in the future. Our results emphasize the importance of removing invasive species during early stages of invasion while their distribution is still relatively confined and negative effects on native species are limited.

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 14 Aug. 2021, Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 18 (1), 1 - 10, English

    Scientific journal

  • Tsutomu Enoki, Masahiro Takagi, Shin Ugawa, Eri Nabeshima, Hiroaki Ishii

    Informa {UK} Limited, 02 Sep. 2020, Journal of Forest Research, 1 - 10

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Russell D. Kramer, H. Roaki Ishii, Kelsey R. Carter, Yuko Miyazaki, Molly A. Cavaleri, Masatake G. Araki, Wakana A. Azuma, Yuta Inoue, Chinatsu Hara

    Global climate change increases uncertainty in sustained functioning of forest ecosystems. Forest canopies are a key link between terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and climate. Here, we introduce research presented at the 66th meeting of the Ecological Society of Japan in the symposium "Structure and function of forest canopies under climate change." Old-growth forest carbon stores are the largest and may be the most vulnerable to climate change as the balance between sequestration and emission could easily be tipped. Detailed structural analysis of individual large, old trees shows they are allocating wood to the trunk and crown in patterns that cannot be deduced from ground, thus can be used to more accurately quantify total forest carbon and sequestration. Slowly migrating species sensitive to novel climatic conditions will have to acclimate at the individual level. Accounting for physiological responses of trees to climate change will improve predictions of future species distributions and subsequent functioning of forest ecosystems. Field experiments manipulating temperature and precipitation show how trees compensate physiologically to mitigate for higher temperatures and drought. However, it is difficult to measure acclimation responses over long timeframes. Intraindividual trait variation is proposed as an indicator of acclimation potential of trees to future conditions and suggests that acclimation potential may vary among regional populations within a species. Integrating whole-tree structural data with physiological data offers a promising avenue for understanding how trees will respond to climatic shifts.

    Wiley, 18 May 2020, Ecological Research, 35 (4), 562 - 574, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Enoki Tsutomu, Takagi Masahiro, Ugawa Shin, Nabeshima Eri, Ishii Hiroaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2020, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 131 (0), 722 - 722, Japanese

  • Namba, Yuki, Inoue, Sumihiro, Fujita, Masashi, Noguchi, Yuiko, Hara, Chinatsu, Ishii, Hiroaki

    We compared acclimation potential of three native, evergreen tree species to wind-exposure in an urban greenroof environment. One year after planting on the green roof, Machilus thunbergii retained all leaves and produced new leaves. In contrast, Fraxinus griffithii, and Quercus myrsinifolia shed all leaves but produced more new leaves than the previous year. After two years, current-year leaves of all three species had acclimated hydraulically (lower osmotic potentials at saturation and turgor loss) to wind-induced water stress and leaf number increased to four to eight times the initial amount. When trees were exposed to simulated winds in a greenhouse experiment, osmotic adjustment was observed for current-year leaves of M. thunbergii, whereas leaves of F. griffithii and Q. myrsinifolia had hydraulic traits more vulnerable to wind-induced water stress (higher osmotic potential and relative water content at turgor loss). We inferred that, M. thunbergii invests in hydraulic acclimation to retain current-year leaves in response to increased wind, whereas F. griffithii and Q. myrsinifolia allocate resources to new leaf production. Our results suggest both strategies achieve tree-level acclimation to wind exposure.

    ELSEVIER GMBH, Jul. 2019, URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN GREENING, 43, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Azuma, Wakana, Ishii, H. Roaki, Masaki, Takashi

    Because tree size and age co-vary, it is difficult to separate their effects on growth and physiological function. To infer causes for age-related height-growth decline, we compared various leaf traits between mature (ca. 100years) and old (ca. 300years) trees of Pinus densiflora, having similar heights (ca. 30m) and growing in the same stand. For many leaf traits, mature and old trees showed similar height-related trends reflecting acclimation to height-related hydraulic limitation for maintaining photosynthetic and hydraulic homeostasis. Photosynthetic capacity was constant within crowns of both age-classes, though 4.9-5.4mol CO2 m(-2)s(-1) lower for old than for mature trees. Biochemical acclimation of photosynthesis, allocating more nitrogen to treetop leaves, was observed only for mature trees. Leaf turgor loss point was also constant within crowns of both age-classes with no significant effect of age on leaf hydraulic traits. In mature trees, leaf capacitance increased, while bulk tissue elastic modulus decreased with height, whereas opposite height-related trends were observed for old trees. For both age-classes, leaf mass per area (LMA), transfusion-tissue area, and xylem area all increased with height, but LMA was ca. 30gm(-2) greater for old than for mature trees. In old trees, mesophyll area decreased with height, suggesting anatomical acclimation to height may negatively affect photosynthetic capacity. We inferred that old trees rely more on morphological than biochemical acclimation and that such post-maturational shift in resource allocation could underlie height-growth decline of P. densiflora after reproductive maturity.

    SPRINGER, Feb. 2019, OECOLOGIA, 189 (2), 317 - 328, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ishii, H. Roaki, Horikawa, Shin-ichiro, Noguchi, Yuiko, Azuma, Wakana

    Because rates of migration and genetic adaptation are slow, individual trees must initially acclimate to climate change via individual-level plasticity. Therefore, when predicting distribution and persistence of tree species under future climate change scenarios, we must take into account geographical variation in intra-individual plasticity. Here, we investigated geographical variation of intra-individual plasticity of Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech), a dominant species in late-successional, cool-temperate forests of Japan. We compared within crown variation of leaf morphology (intra-crown leaf plasticity, ILP) among 13 sites across the full distribution range of F. crenata. Generally, ILP was lower for trees in the Pacific than Japan-Sea genetic lineages, low for trees in southern sites, and high for trees in sites near the northern and altitudinal range edges. Among the 13 sites, ILP was correlated with environmental variables associated with temperature. Positive correlation between ILP and temperature variation suggested that environmental perturbation selects for high intra-individual plasticity near northern and altitudinal range edges where F. crenata is expanding its distribution range. On the other hand, low ILP of trees in Pacific and southern sites, comprising geographically isolated populations, may reflect low acclimation potential to environmental perturbation. This could lead to local extinction if climatic conditions exceed the range of tolerance resulting in retreat of the Pacific and southern range edges of F. crenata in Japan.

    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Dec. 2018, FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, 429, 437 - 448, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • NOGUCHI YUIKO, HORIKAWA SHINICHIEO, HARA CHINATSU, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    As trees increase in size, water transport from roots to leaves becomes constrained due to increasing path length, hydraulic resistance, and hydrostatic limitation. In trees, hydraulic conductivity decreases with increasing size due, not only to hydrostatic constraints and increasing path length, but also increasing number of annual nodes and junctions through which water must travel to reach terminal leaves. Axial tapering of xylem conduits contributes to increasing efficiency of whole-tree water conduction and minimizing hydraulic constraints on productivity and growth. Here, we compared xylem structure along the vertical gradient in large, old Cinnamomum camphora trees (with height ca. 25 m and age ca. 100 years) to infer the height effect on xylem structure and its variation with height. Vessel diameter (D) was smaller and vessel density per sapwood area was higher for upper than lower trunk. Within annual rings, vessel diameter decreased from early- to late-wood and the rate of this change was nearly constant with height. Potential hydraulic conductivity, calculated from D, was markedly lower for upper than lower trunk and lack of vessels with D > 250 μm at upper trunk contributed to this difference. Vertical change in xylem structure observed here, may contribute to maintaining hydraulic efficiency and minimizing hydraulic limitation in large, old trees.

    応用森林学会, Aug. 2018, Applied Forest Science, 27 (2), 9 - 15, English

  • Takeshi Sasaki, Hiroaki Ishii, Yukihiro Morimoto

    We assessed whether forest restoration was successful in Expo ’70 Commemorative Park in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, which was planted in the 1970s with native late-successional tree species. Detailed survey and analysis of species composition, stand vertical stratification, and forest dynamics, including comparison with a reference, natural late-successional forest, were conducted. The restoration plots had grown to larger basal area compared with the reference plots, however, this was a consequence of very high densities of the overstory trees due to low self-thinning rate. Stand vertical structure of the restoration plots was biased toward overstory layers, causing high mortality of understory trees and shrubs. Because there are no mature forests near the restoration site that could act as a seed source, abundance and diversity of understory trees are likely to continue decreasing in the restoration plots, resulting in single-layered forest structure similar to those of monocultures and even-aged forests. Many seedlings of exotic species emerged in the restoration plots and this could lead to a plagiosere where exotic species dominate the vegetation inhibiting regeneration and growth of native species. Ordination analysis using different measures, basal area and abundance, showed apparently contradicting results, suggesting that multiple criteria are needed to evaluate forest restoration success. Our results indicate restoration of mature, late-successional forest cannot be achieved by simultaneous planting of native species. To sustain urban forests into the future, we must conduct long-term monitoring and management referencing natural forest structure and dynamics.

    Elsevier GmbH, 01 May 2018, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 32, 123 - 132, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ishii, H. Roaki, Minamino, Takuya, Azuma, Wakana, Hotta, Kana, Nakanishi, Akira

    Trees retained during green-tree retention forestry are expected to function as biological legacies that promote biodiversity and enhance ecosystem functions in plantation forests. Investigating how historically retained trees function as biological legacies could help predict the long-term ecological potential of current retention practices. Here, we investigated whether large, retained trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (> 1000 years old) functioned as refugia for persistence of canopy woody plants after logging in a 350-year-old secondary forest in Yakushima, southern Japan. We climbed five each of retained and regenerated trees in a 1-ha research plot, measured trunk and crown structures, and tagged and measured every woody plant stem found on each tree. Compared to regenerated trees, retained trees had twice the surface area available for canopy plant colonization. Moreover, retained trees hosted disproportionately greater abundance of canopy woody plants. Together, the five retained trees hosted 22 species of woody plants comprising 1188 individuals, whereas regenerated trees hosted only 8 species (37 individuals). Combined with our ground-based measurement, canopy woody species contributed 16% of all woody plant species in the plot. Among the five retained trees, woody plant abundance increased markedly with increasing age of trunk breaks. This was because numerous epicormic branches had sprouted below trunk breaks creating large surface area upon which arboreal soil accumulated and woody plants established. Canopy woody plants on retained trees showed wide vertical distribution corresponding to complex crown structure, whereas those on regenerated trees occurred almost exclusively on the lower trunk. Maximum stem size of canopy woody plants was constrained by the volume of arboreal soil upon which they grew. Based on their size structures, we inferred that three species endemic to Yakushima (Vacciniwn yakushimense Makino., Viburnum urceolatwn Sieb. et Zucc., and Rhododendron yakushimanum Nakai), maintain stable populations in the retained trees by sprouting. Several other species scarcely found on the ground were also regenerating in the canopy. Our results demonstrate that retained trees of Cryptomeria functioned as refugia allowing canopy woody plants to persist after logging and give support to the importance of conserving large trees for enhancing biodiversity in forests where canopy plants contribute to species diversity.

    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Feb. 2018, FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, 409, 457 - 467, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Azuma, Wakana, Nakashima, Satoru, Yamakita, Eri, Ishii, H. Roaki, Kuroda, Keiko

    Recent studies in the tallest tree species suggest that physiological and anatomical traits of tree-top leaves are adapted to water-limited conditions. In order to examine water retention mechanism of leaves in a tall tree, infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy was conducted on mature leaf cross-sections of tall Cryptomeria japonica D. Don from four different heights (51, 43, 31 and 19 m). We measured IR transmission spectra and mainly analyzed OH (3700-3000 cm(-1)) and C-O (1190-845 cm(-1)) absorption bands, indicating water molecules and sugar groups, respectively. The changes in IR spectra of leaf sections from different heights were compared with bulk-leaf hydraulics. Both average OH band area of the leaf sections and leaf water content were larger in the upper-crown, while osmotic potential at saturation did not vary with height, suggesting higher dissolved sugar contents of upper-crown leaves. As cell-wall is the main cellular structure of leaves, we inferred that larger average C-O band area of upper-crown leaves reflected higher content of structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Infrared micro-spectroscopic imaging showed that the OH and C-O band areas are large in the vascular bundle, transfusion tissue and epidermis. Infrared spectra of individual tissue showed that much more water is retained in vascular bundle and transfusion tissue than mesophyll. These results demonstrate that IR micro-spectroscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing detailed, quantitative information on the spatial distribution of chemical substances within plant tissues, which cannot be done using conventional methods like histochemical staining. The OH band could be well reproduced by four Gaussian OH components around 3530 (free water: long H bond), 3410 (pectin-like OH species), 3310 (cellulose-like OH species) and 3210 (bound water: short H bond) cm(-1), and all of these OH components were higher in the upper crown while their relative proportions did not vary with height. Based on the spectral analyses, we inferred that polysaccharides play a key role in biomolecular retention of water in leaves of tall C. japonica.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Oct. 2017, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 37 (10), 1367 - 1378, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Shiraki, Ayumi, Azuma, Wakana, Kuroda, Keiko, Ishii, H. Roaki

    Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (similar to 27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints. We found that physiological acclimation of leaves was determined by light, which drove the vertical gradient of evaporative demand, while leaf morphology and anatomy were determined by height. Compared with lower-crown leaves, treetop leaves were physiologically acclimated to water stress. Leaf hydraulic conductance was not affected by height, and this contributed to higher photosynthetic rates of treetop leaves. Treetop leaves had higher leaf area density and greater leaf mass per area, which increase light interception but could also decrease hydraulic efficiency. We inferred that transfusion tissue flanking the leaf vein, which was more developed in the treetop leaves, contributes to water-stress acclimation and maintenance of leaf hydraulic conductance by facilitating osmotic adjustment of leaf water potential and efficient water transport from xylem to mesophyll. Our findings may represent anatomical adaptation that compensates for hydraulic constraints on physiological function with increasing height.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Oct. 2017, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 37 (10), 1327 - 1336, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Sawa Himeno, Wakana Azuma, Koichiro Gyokusen, H. Roaki Ishii

    Compared with stem water storage, leaf water storage is understudied although it may be important for alleviating water stress by contributing quickly and directly to transpiration demand. To quantify the relative contribution of stem versus leaf water storage to daily water deficit, we measured diurnal changes in transpiration rate, sap-flow velocity and stem radius of 10-year-old Cryptomeria japonica D. Don trees. We assumed that the duration of time lags between transpiration rate and sap-flow velocity reflected stored water in the stem and leaf, and that stem volume change represented water content of elastic tissue. The relationship between fresh mass and water potential of the whole tree indicated that the study trees had capacity to store, on average, 91.4 ml of water per kg fresh mass at turgor loss. Leaves, sapwood and elastic tissue contributed around 51%, 29% and 20% of stored water, respectively. During morning, transpiration rates were higher than sap-flow velocity suggesting depletion of stored water. During the first 2 h after onset of transpiration, stored water contributed more than 100% of whole-tree transpiration. Depletion of leaf water (P-Leaf) and sapwood water (P-Sap) coincided with the onset of transpiration and became maximum around 15:00 h. Depletion of elastic tissue water (P-Elastic) lagged behind that of P-Leaf and P-Sap by 1-2 h, indicating that replenishment of stored water occurs late in the day when low leaf water potentials resulting from daytime transpiration drive water uptake. Maximum depletion of P-Leaf was about 1-3 times and 5-10 times that of P-Sap and P-Elastic, respectively. The contribution of P-Leaf to total daily transpiration was 5-8%, while those of P-Sap and P-Elastic were 3-4% and 0.7-1%, respectively. Our results suggest the importance of leaf water storage in maintaining daily transpiration in young C. japonica trees.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Oct. 2017, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 37 (10), 1394 - 1403, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • RESPONSE OF A CLONAL TEAK PLANTATION TO THINNING AND PRUNING IN JAVA, INDONESIA

    Budiadi, Widiyatno, H. Ishii

    Over the last decade, there has been a shortage of teak (Tectona grandis) timber supply in Indonesia, which cannot be fulfilled by the current rate of production. Genetic improvement has produced two promising clones, but the performance of the clones in degraded lands, where most new plantations are established, is still to be tested. The study shows initial results from a pilot forest of the clones established on degraded limestone soil in Java Island, where various thinning (0, 25 and 50% of trees) and pruning (1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 of the crown) treatments were applied four years after planting. Light levels inside the stands increased with increasing levels of thinning and pruning. Diameter growth increased with thinning intensity, especially in the first year, whereas the effect of pruning was undetectable after three years. Although standing stock in the thinned stands did not recover to pre-thinning levels in three years, cumulative production ( standing stock plus harvested timber) was highest for the heaviest thinning treatment. Initial high growth rate after thinning could not be maintained due to poor soil condition. Fast growth may have induced canopy closure and crown competition among the residual trees. The results suggest that, in clonal teak plantations on degraded soils, short-rotation commercial thinning could maintain growth rates and provide income for the tree growers.

    FOREST RESEARCH INST MALAYSIA, 2017, JOURNAL OF TROPICAL FOREST SCIENCE, 29 (1), 44 - 53, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ishii, H. Roaki, Sillett, Stephen C., Carroll, Allyson L.

    Large trees are the most prominent structural features of old-growth forests, which are considered to be globally important carbon sinks. Because of their large size, estimates of biomass and growth of large trees are often based on ground-level measurements (e.g., diameter at breast height, DBH) and little is known about growth dynamics within the crown. As trees increase in size, growth of the crown may not be reflected in DBH measurements contributing to inaccuracy of aboveground forest productivity. Here we present data from a 10-yr re-measurement of crown structure and branch/trunk growth of 400-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii trees in an old-growth forest in western Washington, USA. In six study trees, 40-60% of branches occurred in the upper third of the live crown. Branch mortality over 10 years was highest in the lower third of the crown. Of live-branch mass (including leaf mass), 41-78% occurred in the middle third of the live crown. During the study period, live-branch mass increased in the upper half of the crown and there was little loss due to fragmentation or death. In contrast, increment of live-branch mass was negligible and live-branch mass decreased in the lower half of the crown. On average, 70-99% of the increment of live-branch mass per tree occurred in the upper half of the crown. Core samples taken from various heights indicatedthat trunks became less tapered with increasing age as a result of greater increments of upper-trunk radius during the most recent 10 years. Increment of live branch mass contributed 42 and 66% of the whole-tree and upper-crown increments of mass, respectively, and its vertical distribution corresponded to that of leaf mass density. Increments of trunk mass contributed 88% of the lower-crown increment. Growth increments of the crown were not reflected in core samples taken at lower heights. Our estimates of trunk, branch, and leaf mass were consistently smaller than those calculated using empirical allometric equations based on tape-wrap measurements of DBH. Moreover, leaf mass decreased in four trees, whereas allometric equations predicted increases. Our results indicate that large P. menziesii trees can sustain wood mass production, especially in trunk and branches of the upper crown, while leaf mass change can be more dynamic, and that such growth dynamics of the crown are difficult to detect via DBH-based measurements. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Jan. 2017, FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, 384, 157 - 168, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ishii Hiroaki, Azuma Wakana, Shiraki Ayumi, Kuroda Keiko

    Water transport in tall trees occurs over long-distances from roots to leaves, as well as against the gravitational hydrostatic gradient. The resulting water stress and physiological/morphological constraints of treetop leaves was considered the main cause of height-growth limitation. In tall trees, there is functional trade-off of xylem hydraulic efficiency relative to hydraulic safety and water-stress adaptation. In addition, xylem hydraulic properties affect photosynthetic production by regulating CO2 uptake through stomata and resource allocation. Because the well-illuminated treetop environment can yield potentially high photosynthetic production, researchers have suggested mechanisms that allow tall trees to adapt/acclimate to, or compensate for, hydraulic limitation. Recent research has revealed new insights, such as structural characteristics of xylem cells for hydraulic efficiency and safety, adaptation/acclimation of xylem structure and function to increasing height, and hydraulic capacitance of leaf and sapwood that compensates for hydraulic limitation. New findings have revealed variability of hydraulic architecture due to high phenotypic plasticity and short-term changes in hydraulic conductivity within tall trees. In tall trees, the water transport pathway connecting soil-plant-atmosphere is not a simple circuit consisting only of resistances, but includes circuit-breaker-like safety buffers and capacitor-like storage mechanisms. Further research should elucidate, in its entirety, the hydraulic architecture of tall trees, and lead to integrated understanding tall-tree ecophysiology.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2017, Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 99 (2), 74 - 83, Japanese

  • Wakana Azuma, H. Roaki Ishii, Katsushi Kuroda, Keiko Kuroda

    Springer Verlag, 01 Jun. 2016, Trees - Structure and Function, 30 (3), 1019, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Azuma, Wakana, Ishii, H. Roaki, Kuroda, Katsushi, Kuroda, Keiko

    SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, Jun. 2016, TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, 30 (3), 1019 - 1019, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • The Changing Vegetation of Nishinomiya Shrine Forest since the Late Edo Period

    ICHINOSE GAKU, ISHII HIROAKI

    日本社叢学会, Mar. 2016, 社叢学会誌, 14, 19 - 24, Japanese

  • Azuma, Wakana, Ishii, H. Roaki, Kuroda, Katsushi, Kuroda, Keiko

    The tallest trees of Cryptomeria japonica occur in climatic regions similar to the world's tallest trees. We hypothesized that tall C. japonica trees would have evolved adaptive mechanisms to overcome height growth limitation. Here, we focused on foliar water storage, a mechanism recently discovered in Sequoia sempervirens. In C. japonica, leaf water potential at turgor loss did not change with height or light availability, while leaf hydraulic capacitance and succulence (water content per leaf surface area) increased, suggesting hydraulic compensation. Plasticity of leaf morphology could contribute to avoiding negative effects of height on photosynthesis. We also focused on the structure and function of transfusion tissue in leaves and its role in water storage and supply. Cross-sectional area of transfusion tissue increased with height, whereas that of xylem was constant. We confirmed that water flowed from vascular bundle to mesophyll via the transfusion tissue. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy images of leaf cross sections showed that transfusion cells were flattened, but not fully dehydrated when leaf water potential decreased in situ and by experimental dehydration, and cell deformation was more marked for treetop leaves than for lower-crown leaves. The shape of transfusion cells recovered at predawn as well as after experimental rehydration. As in S. sempervirens, transfusion tissue of C. japonica may function as a hydraulic buffer, absorbing and releasing water according to leaf water status. Anatomical and hydraulic properties contributing to foliar water storage may be an adaptive mechanism acquired by tall Cupressaceae trees to overcome the hydraulic constraints on physiological function with increasing height.

    SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, Feb. 2016, TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, 30 (1), 141 - 152, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Gaku Ichinose, Yoshihiro Ohsugi, Ayako Iwasaki

    To evaluate the effectiveness of active management on ecological restoration of urban forest fragments, we investigated recovery of the native vegetation in an urban shrine forest in central Japan after complete removal of the invasive warm-temperate palm, Trachycarpus fortunei Wendl. Nine years after removal, stand density and basal area of the remaining tree species had recovered to pre-removal values. Number and basal area of native evergreen trees, such as Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. and Ficus erectus Thunb., had increased, especially in the lowest canopy layer where T. fortunei had dominated. As a result, species composition of the shrub layer shifted from dominance by single invasive species (T. fortunei) to multiple native species. However, exotic species and escaped ornamentals, such as Lingustrum lucidum Ait. and Euronymus japonicus Thunb., had also increased, especially in the forest edge. Our results indicate that removal of invasive species contributes to recovery of native vegetation. However, to maintain near natural conditions considered ideal for shrine forests, continuous monitoring and management will be needed to prevent invasion by exotic and ornamental species. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

    ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG, 2016, URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN GREENING, 15, 53 - 57, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Takeshi Sasaki, Shota Jikumaru, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, Hiroaki Ishii

    The larvae of Japanese gypsy moth (JGM, Lymantria dispar japonica) are highly polyphagous and considered a serious pest that cause significant ecological and economic losses in forests. Monitoring of egg masses is important to prevent large outbreaks of JGM from occurring in their native range. To investigate oviposition site selection by JGM, we analyzed the occurrence and spatial distribution of egg masses across various evergreen tree species within a secondary forest dominated by evergreen broad-leaved trees in western Japan, following a large outbreak. Egg masses were concentrated on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves of a few evergreen tree species. There was a strong preference for Camellia japonica L., on which more than 75% of the egg masses were found. Egg masses were only found on evergreen tree species with large leaves (leaf area >10 cm(2) and leaf dry mass >0.1 g). The spatial distribution of egg masses were clustered at scales around 1-2 m. For effective monitoring of JGM egg masses in warm-temperate evergreen broad-leaved forests of Japan, the abaxial surfaces of the most abundant evergreen broadleaved trees with large leaves should be checked. If egg masses are found, it is likely that nearby trees of the same species will also have egg masses. Large trees should be checked thoroughly for occurrence of multiple egg masses.

    TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016, FOREST SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 12 (3), 130 - 136, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Gaku Ichinose, Yoshihiro Ohsugi, Ayako Iwasaki

    To evaluate the effectiveness of active management on ecological restoration of urban forest fragments, we investigated recovery of the native vegetation in an urban shrine forest in central Japan after complete removal of the invasive warm-temperate palm, Trachycarpus fortunei Wendl. Nine years after removal, stand density and basal area of the remaining tree species had recovered to pre-removal values. Number and basal area of native evergreen trees, such as Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. and Ficus erectus Thunb., had increased, especially in the lowest canopy layer where T. fortunei had dominated. As a result, species composition of the shrub layer shifted from dominance by single invasive species (T. fortunei) to multiple native species. However, exotic species and escaped ornamentals, such as Lingustrum lucidum Ait. and Euronymus japonicus Thunb., had also increased, especially in the forest edge. Our results indicate that removal of invasive species contributes to recovery of native vegetation. However, to maintain near natural conditions considered ideal for shrine forests, continuous monitoring and management will be needed to prevent invasion by exotic and ornamental species. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

    ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG, 2016, URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN GREENING, 15, 53 - 57, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Naoki Makita, Yasuhiro Hirano, Takanobu Sugimoto, Toko Tanikawa, Hiroaki Ishii

    Soil N fertility has an effect on belowground C allocation, but the physiological and morphological responses of individual fine root segments to variations in N availability under field conditions are still unclear. In this study, the direction and magnitude of the physiological and morphological function of fine roots in response to variable in situ soil N fertility in a forest site were determined. We measured the specific root respiration (Rr) rate, N concentration and morphology of fine root segments with 1–3 branching orders in a 100-year-old coniferous forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa. Higher soil N fertility induced higher Rr rates, root N concentration, and specific root length (SRL), and lower root tissue density (RTD). In all fertility levels, the Rr rates were significantly correlated positively with root N and SRL and negatively with RTD. The regression slopes of respiration with root N and RTD were significantly higher along the soil N fertility gradient. Although no differences in the slopes of Rr and SRL relationship were found across the levels, there were significant shifts in the intercept along the common slope. These results suggest that a contrasting pattern in intraspecific relationships between specific Rr and N, RTD, and SRL exists among soils with different N fertility. Consequently, substantial increases in soil N fertility would exert positive effects on organ-scale root performance by covarying the Rr, root N, and morphology for their potential nutrient and water uptake.

    Springer Verlag, 09 Aug. 2015, Oecologia, 179 (4), 959 - 967, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Evaluation of a natural forest restoration project in Kobe City, Japan ten years after planting

    HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    Mar. 2015, Applied Forest Science, 24 (1), 15 - 20, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ishii Hiroaki, Homma Kosuke, Dolezal Jiri, Hara Toshihiko, Sumida Akihiro, Vetrova Valentina, Vyatkina Marina, Hotta Kana

    Fire is a natural component of vegetation dynamics in boreal forests. However, in Far East Russia,socio-economic changes following the dissolution of the Soviet Union have resulted in increased incidences ofhuman-caused forest fires. Here,we compared the species composition and stand structure among three foreststands at various stages of recovery after fires in Central Kamchatka, to infer how intraspecific differences inregeneration strategies and subsequent patterns of survival affect post-fire forest succession. At 2 years aftera fire, sprouted stems of Populus tremula and Betula platyphylla were clustered according to their modes ofsprouting;root suckers at the 3-m scale, and stump sprouts at the 0.5-m scale, respectively. At 40 years aftera fire,stems of Larix cajanderi originating from seeds were clustered at an 8-m scale. At 200 years after a fire,clumps of B. platyphylla and L. cajanderi were both randomly distributed and the clumps of B. platyphylla weremaintained by sprouting. Bray-Curtis ordination analyses suggested that there may be multiple pathways ofpost-fire succession depending on the relative survival rates of P. tremula and B. platyphylla. If fire-returnintervals become shorter in Central Kamchatka because of more frequent human-caused fires,the population sizeof L. cajanderi will decrease and early successional forests comprising P. tremula and B. platyphylla will dominatethe landscape. On the other hand,if fires are suppressed,late-successional forests comprising L. cajanderiand B. platyphylla will dominate the landscape.北方林において森林火災は重要な自然かく乱であるが, 極東ロシアにおいては, ソ連邦崩壊後の社会経済情勢に変化により, 人為的な森林火災が増加している. 本研究では, カムチャッカ半島中央部において火災後の植生回復年数が異なる3か所の林分で調査を行い, 構成種による生存率と更新様式の違いが火災後の植生遷移にどのように影響するかを考察した. 火災後2年目の林分では, Populustremula とBetula platyphylla がそれぞれの更新様式(根萌芽および幹萌芽)に応じて, 3m および0.5m のスケールで集中分布していた. 火災後40年目の林分では, 種子由来のLarix cajanderi が8m のスケールで集中分布していた. 火災後200年目の林分では, B. platyphylla の株とL. cajanderiがともにランダム分布しており, B. platyphylla の萌芽は個体群の更新・成長ではなく株の維持を担っていた. Bray-Curtis法による解析の結果から, 火災後のP. tremula およびB. platyphylla の相対的な生存率の違いによって, 二次遷移の方向性が異なる可能性が示唆された. 今後, カムチャッカ半島において人為による火災頻度が高くなれば, P. tremula およびB. platyphylla が優占する遷移初期の森林が拡大し, L. cajanderi の個体群は減少すると考えられる. 一方, 火災が抑制されれば, L.cajanderi およびB. platyphylla が優占する遷移後期林が拡大するだろう.

    Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, 2015, Low Temperature Science, 73, 1 - 6, English

  • Kana Hotta, Hiroaki Ishii, Takeshi Sasaki, Naoko Doi, Wakana Azuma, Yui Oyake, Junichi Imanishi, Hironobu Yoshida

    To integrate human-disturbed hillslopes with the regional landscape, natural forest restoration has become an important objective of hillslope re-vegetation in Japan. At Kobe Municipal Sports Park (KMSP), seedlings of native species were planted in 1980 to restore semi-natural secondary forest (satoyama) in an urban setting. Here, we present 21 years of stand dynamics based on vegetation surveys conducted in 1992, 2000, and 2013 in two research plots (control and managed) at KMSP in relation to a reference forest to evaluate management effects and restoration success. Total basal area continued to increase in both the plots, but diameter-growth decreased in the control plot, whereas it continued to increase in the managed plot, which had been thinned by volunteers. In the control plot, which was planted at higher initial density than the managed plot, Quercus phillyraeoides (evergreen, mid-canopy tree) dominated the single-layered canopy and vertical development was delayed. In the managed plot, Quercus serrata (deciduous, canopy tree) dominated the upper canopy layer and evergreen broadleaved trees dominated the mid- to lower-canopy layers, resulting in a vertically well-developed canopy similar to the reference forest. The basal area of Robinia pseudoacacia decreased due to shading by evergreen trees, whereas that of Nerium oleander, an exotic species, had increased in the control plot. Ordination results indicated that vegetation of the control plot was diverging away from the reference forest, whereas thinning had directed the managed plot toward it. Our results confirm that simultaneously planting seedlings of native species does not lead to natural forest stand structure. In the future, adaptive management, such as periodic thinning, removal of shade-tolerant, exotic species and enrichment planting of native species, will be needed to integrate forest restoration sites with the surrounding mid-successional, secondary forest. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

    ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG, 2015, URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN GREENING, 14 (2), 309 - 314, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • MINAMINO Takuya, TAKASHIMA Atsushi, YOSHIDA Shigejirou, ISHII Hiroaki

    To quantify the species composition of epiphytic woody plant communities in the canopy, we climbed trees using ropes and directly measured the epiphytic woody plant communities on a Cryptomeria japonica tree that regenerated after harvesting in Edo Period and a remnant tree left standing in a mixed coniferbroadleaf forest on Yakushima Island. We found only 4 species and 8 individuals on the regenerated tree, whereas we found 12 species and 391 individuals on the remnant tree. In the remnant tree, Sorbus commixta occurred in the upper canopy, while Vaccinium yakishimense occurred in the mid to lower canopy and Rhododendron tashiroi occurred on the lower stem, reflecting vertical stratification among species. Based on their size distribution, we inferred that the dominant epiphytes are regenerating in the canopy. Our results suggest that remnant trees function as refugia for species that do not occur on the ground and that retention of large, old trees after harvesting contributes to maintaining biodiversity of the forest.

    The Society of Vegetation Science, 2015, Vegetation Science, 32 (1), 57 - 63, Japanese

  • Ishii, H. Roaki, Azuma, Wakana, Kuroda, Keiko, Sillett, Stephen C.

    1. The constraint on vertical water transport is considered an important factor limiting height growth and maximum attainable height of trees. Here, we show evidence of foliar water storage as a mechanism that could partially compensate for this constraint in Sequoia sempervirens, the tallest species. 2. We measured hydraulic and morpho-anatomical characteristics of foliated shoots of tall S.sempervirens trees near the wet, northern and dry, southern limits of its geographic distribution in California, USA. 3. The ability to store water (hydraulic capacitance) and saturated water content (leaf succulence) of foliage both increased with height and light availability, maintaining tolerance of leaves to water stress (bulk-leaf water potential at turgor loss) constant relative to height. 4. Transverse-sectional area of water-storing, transfusion tissue in leaves increased with height, while the area of xylem tissue decreased, indicating increasing allocation to water storage and decreasing reliance on water transport from roots. 5. Treetop leaves of S.sempervirens absorb moisture via leaf surfaces and have potential to store more than five times the daily transpirational demand. Thus, foliar water storage may be an important adaptation that helps maintain physiological function of treetop leaves and hydraulic status of the crown, allowing this species to partially compensate for hydraulic constraints and sustain turgor for both photosynthesis and height growth.

    WILEY, Oct. 2014, FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, 28 (5), 1087 - 1093, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 画像三次元化ソフトを利用した樹幹形の測定と診断

    瀬尾まどか, 石井弘明, 黒田慶子

    30 Apr. 2014, 樹木医学研究, 18 (2), 41 - 42, Japanese

  • Phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in growth and flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) under different light and temperature conditions

    Shubhangi Moharekar (Lokhande), Sanjay Moharekar, TsuyoShi Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishii, Akihiro Sumida, Toshihiko Hara

    Four ecotypes of A. thaliana (L) (Ct-1, Pf-0, Old-1 and Per-1) from low to high latitudes were grown under different light (300 mu mol photon m(-2)s(-1) and 150 mu mol photon m(-2)s(-1)) and temperature (22 and 14 C) conditions to investigate their effects on phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in plant growth and first flowering time. The results suggest that in A. thaliana low temperature decreases both phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in first flowering time and total dry matter at final harvest under different light intensities. Relative growth rate is the most stable parameter of A. thaliana that is hardly affected by ecotype (no effect), light (no effect) or temperature (small effect) and this may one of the reason why A. thaliana is widely distributed on earth as a result of adaptations to different environments.

    NATL INST SCIENCE COMMUNICATION-NISCAIR, Apr. 2014, INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 52 (4), 344 - 351, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Azuma Wakana, Iwasaki Ayako, Ohsugi Yoshihiro, Ishii Hiroaki

    In fragmented and abandoned forests near urban areas, vegetation succession often follows a plagiosere, but the direction of succession may vary depending on the surrounding landscape. We investigated edge effects and five-year change in stand structure of an abandoned secondary deciduous forest located adjacent to agricultural fields and near lucidophyllous forest. In the secondary forest, the number and basal area of evergreen-species increased, while many small individuals of deciduous species died. Size, number, and basal area of evergreen species increased from forest edge to interior, while mortality of deciduous species increased during the five-year study period. Although newly established trees included many bird-dispersed species, more than half of these were lucidophyllous forest components, dispersal was not concentrated near the forest edge, and no ornamental or invasive species were observed. Thus, we inferred that the vegetation change in the secondary forest is not following a plagiosere.We predict that evergreen species will spread from the interior toward the forest edge, shade-tolerant evergreen species will increase in the lower canopy, and tree species composition of the secondary forest will become more similar to the nearby lucidophyllous forest. In a landscape where mature forests may function as seed sources, vegetation change in fragmented and abandoned forests may not divert to a plagiosere.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2014, Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 96 (2), 75 - 82, Japanese

  • Kato Akira, Ishii Hiroaki, Enoki Tsutomu, Osawa Akira, Kobayashi Tatsuaki, Umeki Kiyoshi, Sasaki Takeshi, Matsue Keigo

    Recent advances in laser technology enable us to capture detailed forest structures quickly and accurately. In the past, airborne laser has been used intensively to measure stand level attributes, such as average tree height, individual tree crowns, canopy cover, canopy stratification, and tree height growth. Using terrestrial lasers we can obtain more accurate stem volume and stem density by identifying the stem structure. Moreover, with the terrestrial laser, we can measure the upper part of stem and crown without human error, which was impossible using conventional ground-based manual measurement. LiDAR has contributed to various fields of forest ecosystem studies in estimating forest light and hydrological environments, predicting stand dynamics, and quantifying parameters for forest conservation. We expect that terrestrial lasers will be used more widely in forest ecological research to quantify physiological function of trees, large-scale, long-term monitoring of forest dynamics, as well as environmental assessment. This fine scale measurement technology has the potential to capture various structural attributes of forest ecosystems, which would allow us to understand and measure ecological processes quantitatively in forest ecosystems.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2014, Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 96 (3), 168 - 181, Japanese

  • M. S. Noman, M. A. Maleque, M. Z. Alam, S. Afroz, H. T. Ishii

    We conducted a study on the intercropping of mustard with four spice crops to evaluate whether intercropping is effective in suppressing the abundance of the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.). Eight intercropping systems (various combinations of mustard with onion, garlic, coriander and ajwain) were compared with mustard monoculture as the control. At different stages of crop growth, aphid abundance was significantly suppressed in the mustard + two rows of coriander intercropping system, while the abundance of the predator, ladybird beetle, increased relative to the control. Among the intercropping systems, mustard + two rows of coriander recorded the highest mustard equivalent yield (2311.5kg/ha), gross return (US$1433.2/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (3.14:1.00), while these values were lowest for the control (987.5kg/ha, $612.3/ha, and 1.27:1.00, respectively).

    TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Oct. 2013, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEST MANAGEMENT, 59 (4), 306 - 313, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Yoichi Kanazawa, Hiroaki T. Ishii, Shoko Homma, Yasuo Kita, Mayuko Jomura, Wang Wenjie, Zu Yuangang

    Branch growth in Larix gmelinii was estimated by several methods. Sample trees were felled in Laoshan (northeastern China) and Sapporo (northern Japan). Estimates of the annual woody growth of branches calculated by the growth ratio of the cross-sectional area of each branch base were found to be lower compared with those calculated by a detailed method, in which branch growth was estimated by growth-ring analysis of radial segments in different age classes. A linear relationship was observed between the annual woody growth/whole branch mass ratio and the relative depth within the crown (RDC), where the distance between the treetop and crown base was set to 1.0. The total annual woody branch growth of each tree was estimated using this relationship by multiplying the ratio by the whole branch mass at a given RDC and adding the products from the treetop to the crown base. Alternative estimates were obtained using the total branch growth, defined as the annual woody growth plus leaf mass, and the 1 - RDC relationship. Estimates obtained by these methods were similar to those obtained by detailed growth-ring analysis of branches. Estimates obtained by the growth/mass ratio for only the stem within the crown were also compared with those obtained by detailed growth-ring analysis.

    SPRINGER JAPAN KK, Aug. 2013, JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, 18 (4), 345 - 352, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Wakana Azuma, Eri Nabeshima

    Because of their overwhelming size over other organisms, trees define the structural and energetic properties of forest ecosystems. From grasslands to forests, leaf area index, which determines the amount of light energy intercepted for photosynthesis, increases with increasing canopy height across the various terrestrial ecosystems of the world. In vertically well-developed forests, niche differentiation along the vertical gradient of light availability may promote species coexistence. In addition, spatial and temporal differentiation of photosynthetic traits among the coexisting tree species (functional diversity) may promote complementary use of light energy, resulting in higher biomass and productivity in multi-species forests. Trees have evolved retaining high phenotypic plasticity because the spatial/temporal distribution of resources in forest ecosystems is highly heterogeneous and trees modify their own environment as they increase nearly 1,000 times in size through ontogeny. High phenotypic plasticity may enable coexistence of tree species through divergence in resource-rich environments, as well as through convergence in resource-limited environments. We propose that the breadth of individual-level phenotypic plasticity, expressed at the metamer level (leaves and shoots), is an important factor that promotes species coexistence and resource-use complementarity in forest ecosystems. A cross-biome comparison of the link between plasticity of photosynthesis-related traits and stand productivity will provide a functional explanation for the relationship between species assemblages and productivity of forest ecosystems.

    SPRINGER JAPAN KK, Mar. 2013, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 28 (2), 191 - 198, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Yoko Hamada, Hajime Utsugi

    We investigated the effects of sun- and shade-shoot architecture on the photosynthetic rates of two Picea species by applying light from various angles in the laboratory. Compared with sun shoots, shade shoots were characterized by lower mass allocation per light-intercepting area, less leaf mass per shoot mass, less mutual shading among leaves and more efficient allocation of chlorophyll to photosynthesis. The shoot silhouette to total leaf area ratio (STAR(phi)) decreased with increasing shoot inclination angle (phi, the shoot axis angle relative to the projection plane) and was consistently higher for the shade shoots. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the shade shoots resulted in maximum rates of net photosynthesis at phi = 0 degrees (P-max,P-0) similar to that of the sun shoots when expressed on a leaf mass, total leaf area and chlorophyll basis. When the angle of incoming light was varied, P-max,P-phi per total leaf area (P-max,P-phi /A(T)) of the shade shoots increased linearly with increasing STAR(phi), while P-max,P-phi per shoot silhouette area did not change. In contrast, the response of the sun shoots was non-linear, and an optimum angle of incoming light was determined. Our results suggest that shade-shoot morphology is adaptive for utilizing diffuse light incoming from various angles, while sun-shoot morphology is adaptive for avoiding the negative effects of strong direct radiation and for enhancing light diffusion into the canopy. We propose that the angle of incoming light should be taken into account when estimating photosynthetic rates of sun shoots of conifer trees in the field.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Oct. 2012, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 32 (10), 1227 - 1236, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ehara Hidekazu, Ishii Hiroaki, Maeto Kaoru

    In order to understand the effects of line thinning on forest biota, we compared ant community structure between the line thinned and an adjacent control stand in two Japanese cedar plantations in Hyogo Prefecture. The stand, which was heavily thinned 11 years ago, tended to have more woodland specialists and less habitat generalists compared with the control plot. In the stand, which was lightly thinned four years ago, the opposite trend was observed. The effect of environmental factors on ant species composition was not clear, but there were some effects of the amount of incident light to the forest floor and the biomass of understory vegetation. Our results indicate that more investigation is needed in order to use ant species composition as an indicator of the degree of disturbance and subsequent recovery of forest biota after forest management practices.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2012, Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 94 (1), 36 - 41, Japanese

  • Tsutomu Enoki, Takafumi Inoue, Naoaki Tashiro, Hiroaki Ishii

    We measured the aboveground biomass, biomass increment and litterfall production of a 140-year-old, abandoned Cryptomeria japonica plantation in order to infer the effects of topography on biomass production. The plantation was unsuccessful and the naturally regenerated broad-leaved trees contributed 93.4% (374.2 Mg ha(-1)) of the total aboveground biomass (400.2 Mg ha(-1)). Comparing between different slope positions, aboveground biomass decreased downslope corresponding to the decrease in broad-leaved tree biomass. The biomass of C. japonica did not vary with slope position. Biomass increment and litterfall production of the broad-leaved trees also decreased downslope. However, litterfall production per unit biomass and aboveground net primary production per unit biomass increased downslope. Results of a path analysis showed that biomass increment of C. japonica decreased with increasing topographical convexity, whereas biomass and litterfall production of broad-leaved tree increased. Litterfall production of broad-leaved tree decreased with increasing biomass of C. japonica, suggesting that, despite their small biomass, the presence of residual C. japonica may have negative effects on the distribution and productivity of the broad-leaved trees. Our results indicated that total aboveground biomass of the study site was comparable to that of old-growth C. japonica plantations. We inferred that the variation in aboveground biomass of the broad-leaved trees was largely determined by the topography, while their productivity was affected by interactions with planted C. japonica.

    SPRINGER TOKYO, Aug. 2011, JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, 16 (4), 268 - 274, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Yoshihiro Ohsugi

    We compared light acclimation potential among three evergreen broadleaved species with contrasting patterns of shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf maturation. Understory saplings were transferred to a high-light environment before bud break, grown for 13 months, and then transferred back to the understory to observe subsequent carry-over effects. Acclimation potential was highest and sapling mortality was lowest for Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. ex Nakai. Indeterminate growth and successive leaf emergence allowed this species to acclimate to both high and low light by adjusting leaf production as well as leaf properties. Sapling mortality occurred after both transfers for Camellia japonica L., which also has indeterminate growth and successive leaf emergence. In this species, carry-over effects were observed at the individual level, but leaf-level acclimation potential was high. Acclimation potential was lowest and sapling mortality occurred soon after the transfer to high light for Quercus glauca Thunb. ex Murray. Determinate growth and flush-type leaf emergence resulted in significant carry-over effects in this species. Indeterminate growth and successive leaf emergence increase whole-plant acclimation potential by extending the period of growth and architectural development during the growing season. Similarly, we inferred that delayed leaf maturation, observed in many evergreen species, increases the acclimation potential of current-year leaves by extending the period of leaf development. In evergreen species, the acclimation potential of preexisting leaves determines the role that leaf turnover plays in whole-plant light acclimation, resulting in diverse strategies for light acclimation among species, as observed in this study.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Aug. 2011, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 31 (8), 819 - 830, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Shirota Tetsuoh, Kitahara Kazuki, Ishii Hiroaki, Yasue Koh, Okano Tetsuo

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2011, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 123, L16 - L16, Japanese

  • Hiraoka Yuichiro, Ishii Hiroaki, Matsunaga Koji, Fujisawa Yoshitake

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2011, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 122 (0), 593 - 593, Japanese

  • 松本晃, 小南裕志, Ishii, H

    In order to estimate the heterotrophic respiration of fine dead root (Rhr), we tested a new method of direct measurement of dead roots buried in the L-layer of forest soil using a small chamber system. CO2 efflux from the dead roots ranged 83.3∼577.3 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1 and was inferred to be from the decomposition of the dead roots. The CO2 efflux showed seasonal change and increased exponentially with increasing soil temperature. In addition, CO2 efflux increased with decreasing mean root diameter, and the relationship could be described by a power function. Our results suggested that seasonal change and decomposition of very fine roots morphology need to be considered in estimating CO2 efflux from fine root litter in forest soils.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2011, 日本森林学会誌, 92:269-272 (5), 269 - 272, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • クスノキ挿木苗の生理・形態特性:実生苗との比較

    東若菜, 仲尾公平, Ishii, H

    2011, 日本緑化工学会誌, 37: 21-25, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Naoki Makita, Yasuhiro Hirano, Takeo Mizoguchi, Yuji Kominami, Masako Dannoura, Hiroaki Ishii, Leena Finer, Yoichi Kanazawa

    Very fine roots (< 0.5 mm in diameter) of forest trees may serve as better indicators of root function than the traditional category of < 2 mm, but how these roots will exhibit the plasticity of species-specific traits in response to heterogeneous soil nutrients is unknown. Here, we examined the vertical distribution of biomass and morphological and physiological traits of fine roots across three narrow diameter classes (< 0.5, 0.5-1.0, and 1.0-2.0 mm) of Quercus serrata and Ilex pedunculosa at five soil depths down to 50 cm in a broad-leaved temperate forest. In both species, biomass and the allocation of very fine roots were higher in the surface soil but lower below 10-cm soil depth compared to values for larger roots (0.5-2.0 mm). When we applied these diameter classes, only very fine roots of Q. serrata exhibited significant changes in specific root length (SRL; m g(-1)) and root nitrogen (N) concentrations with soil depth, whereas the N concentrations only changed significantly in I. pedunculosa. The SRL and root N concentrations of larger roots in the two species did not significantly differ among soil depths. Thus, very fine roots may exhibit species-specific traits and change their potential for nutrient and water uptake in response to soil depth by plasticity in root biomass, the length, and the N in response to available resources.

    SPRINGER JAPAN KK, Jan. 2011, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 26 (1), 95 - 104, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Jiri Dolezal, Hiroaki Ishii, Tomas Kyncl, Koichi Takahashi, Valentina P. Vetrova, Kosuke Homma, Akihiro Sumida, Toshihiko Hara

    Radial growth responses to climate were studied in two species of birch broadly distributed across Kamchatka Peninsula Wood cores were obtained in different locations and environments, from upper to lower treelines, and from wet maritime sites at the Pacific to the subcontinental interior of the peninsula. Response functions were calculated using the four longest meteorological records (1920s-2000) in Kamchatka. In Betula ermanu Cham, the dominant species in mountains and maritime woodlands, ring width in high-elevation (500-600 m) trees increased with warm and less rainy June and July and decreased with rainy/snowy cool weather during the prior September and October Radial growth in B ermanii low-elevation trees increased with higher winter precipitation, suggesting that water from inching snow prevents water stress and possibly desiccation in low-elevation trees In Benda platyphylla Sukaczev, a common taiga species in interior Kamchatka, low summer temperatures limited growth at its upper distributional limit (300-350 m) and in cool, wet sites dominated by Picea ajanensis Lindl. et Gord On drier sites dominated by Lam cajanderu Mayr growth was limited by warm April and dry June weather. Variable responses along elevation-continentality gradients reinforce the necessity of a site-dependent differentiation for the assessment of impacts of climate change on species performance and geographic range shifts.

    NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA-N R C RESEARCH PRESS, Feb. 2010, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH-REVUE CANADIENNE DE RECHERCHE FORESTIERE, 40 (2), 273 - 285, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Enoki Tsutomu, Inoue Takafumi, Tashiro Naoaki, Ishii Hiroaki

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2010, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 121 (0), 527 - 527, Japanese

  • Inoue, S, Shirota, T, Mitsuda, Y, Ishii, H, Gyokusen, K

    In coniferous plantation forests, a detailed understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of tree sizes is important for designing silvicultural treatments as well as controlling stand productivity. However, previous investigations have yielded unclear results regarding size dynamics, especially those of coefficient of variation (CV) in diameter at breast height (DBH) soon after canopy closure. We evaluated how differences in the spatial pattern of tree sizes at canopy closure affected the subsequent size structure dynamics of a monoclonal Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation using an individual competition-based model. In the model, local competition among adjacent trees determined tree growth. The model was parameterized using empirical equations derived from a 12-year-old monoclonal C. japonica plantation. We varied the spatial pattern of tree sizes while the size frequency distribution at canopy closure was fixed. Three types of initial spatial patterns were compared, where large and small trees were aggregated (large adjacent to small), random or segregated. The variation in spatial pattern of tree sizes at canopy closure resulted in differences in the dynamics of CV of DBH among stands. Our results suggested that, even in plantation forests with the same size structure and lattice planting design, different spatial patterns of tree sizes might lead to different CV dynamics in DBH. The variable size dynamics observed in previous studies may have been caused by variation in spatial pattern or short observation period. Interactions between spatial pattern of tree sizes and other factors affecting CV dynamics must be verified through long-term studies in actual plantation forests.

    Japan Society of Forest Planning, 2010, Journal of Forest Planning, 15:11-19 (1), 11 - 19, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • M. Abdul Maleque, Hiroaki Ishii, Kaoru Maeto, Shingo Taniguchi

    We investigated the seasonal changes in the abundance of coleopteran and hymenopteran functional groups to evaluate the ecological suitability of line thinning in overstocked Japanese cedar plantations in central Japan. In line thinning, 3- to 5-m-wide sections of the stand are harvested parallel to the mountain slope and perpendicular to the forest roads. The thinning intensity varies from 25 to 35% of the total number of trees. We compared the seasonal abundance between the thinned stand and the unthinned (control) stand in two plantation forests: a low-elevation Sugi site (4 years since thinning) and a high-elevation Kuchiotani site (6 years since thinning). Most coleopteran and hymenopteran functional groups were consistently more abundant in the thinned stand than in the unthinned stand. The differences in arthropod abundance between the thinned and unthinned stands were mainly caused by marked differences in the abundance of seasonally strongly changing functional groups during their peak seasons. The predators and parasitoids of insects as well as the plant and pollen feeders (plant-dependent functional groups) responded to seasonal changes in the vegetation (food and microhabitats) and microclimate. The ants were less affected by line thinning. Our results indicate that line thinning is an ecologically suitable silvicultural treatment for the improvement of biodiversity conditions in the overstocked plantation forests.

    SPRINGER TOKYO, Jan. 2010, LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 6 (1), 43 - 52, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Carbon mitigation in tropical agroforestry systems: case study from Melaleuca leucadendron LINN plantations producing cajuput oil in Java, Indonesia

    Budi Adi, ISHII Hiroaki, KANAZAWA Youichi

    2010, Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 22:378-388, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 杉元貴信, Ishii,H, 千葉幸弘, 金澤洋一

    In order to understand the dynamics of tree growth with increasing stand age, we developed models for estimating the foliage and branch mass and their vertical distribution, which influence tree growth, in a 90-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa plantation in Hieizan Enryakuji Temple, Japan. We fit the expanded allometric equation to the relationship between distance from tree top and cumulative branch/foliage biomass. We then obtained equations for estimating the parameters of the expanded allometric equation for each tree from its DBH and tree height. The vertical distribution of branch/foliage biomass in the crown was skewed downward for the small trees and upward for the large trees. Stand-level branch and foliage biomass were 18.3 and 9.6 t ha−1, respectively. Branch biomass culminated at 2.2 t ha−1 m−1 at 16 m above ground, while leaf biomass culminated at 1.2 t ha−1 m−1 at 17 m above ground. Together with previous studies, our results suggested that, in C. obtusa plantations, branch biomass culminated around 72 years and then decreased gradually, while foliage biomass was sustained. On the other hand, branch-to-foliage biomass ratio increased with stand age.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2010, 日本森林学会誌, 92:63-71 (2), 63 - 71, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Atsushi Takashima, Naoki Makita, Shigejiro Yoshida

    We investigated vertical stratification and effects of crown damage on maximum tree height in two mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Yakushima Island, southern Japan. In both research plots, the conifer trees dominated the upper canopy while the broadleaved trees dominated the middle to lower canopy. Most broadleaved trees were shorter than the median crown-base height (HCB) of the conifer trees. Estimates of the maximum height (Hmax) of the conifer trees were greater than those of the broadleaved trees. Crown damage had significant negative effects on maximum height of the conifer trees. Crown damage was observed for 72.8-88.7% of the conifer trees, and severe types of damage such as stem breakage and top die-back were the most predominant. The Hmax of the damaged conifer trees was 16-17% shorter than that of the intact trees and as much as 16-28% shorter than the potential maximum height estimated from the diameter-height relationship of the tallest intact trees. We inferred that crown disturbance is an important factor determining the maximum height of the canopy of the two mixed forests. Our results suggested that vertical stratification between conifer and broadleaved trees may be an important mechanism contributing to their coexistence and additive basal area of mixed forests on Yakushima Island. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

    2010, Plant Ecology, 211 (1), 27 - 36, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki T. Ishii, Tohru Manabe, Keitaro Ito, Naoko Fujita, Ayumi Imanishi, Daisuke Hashimoto, Ayako Iwasaki

    In Japan, forests associated with shrines and temples are recognized as important components of urban green space, which can potentially function as centers for ecosystem conservation in rapidly urbanizing Japanese cities. In addition to their ecological value, shrine/temple forests have social value, providing recreational and aesthetic needs to residents of urban areas. We review the historical development of shrine/temple forests in Japan and discuss current conservation issues from both ecological and sociological perspectives. Generally, shrine forests are minimally managed and public access is discouraged, whereas temple forests are intensively managed for public display. Shrines tend to be spatially scattered across the landscape but associated with specific geographical features, whereas temples tend to be clustered. Their wide and random distribution in urban areas suggests that shrine forests can potentially be used as stepping stones in the urban green space network, whereas spatially clustered temple forests can be integrated to form large areas of green space. Species diversity of shrine/temple forests declines with decreasing area. The distribution pattern of species is not completely nested, indicating that although conservation of large forest fragments may be effective for maintaining landscape-level biodiversity, smaller forest fragments and adjacent precincts are sometimes significant because rare species occasionally inhabit them. Active management and ecological restoration, such as removal of invasive species, are also important to maintain the desirable near-natural forest conditions. A working group including the owner, community, regional government, and ecologists should be involved in creating an effective, long-term management plan. Because social and cultural values are diverse, basic ecological studies of shrine/temple forests would contribute a scientific basis that fosters public confidence in the process. © 2010 International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer.

    2010, Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 6 (2), 307 - 315, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Shoko Asano

    Mixed forests comprising multiple tree species with contrasting crown architectures, leaf phenologies, and photosynthetic activity, tend to have high ecosystem productivity. We propose that in such forests, differentiation among coexisting species in their spatial and temporal strategies for light interception, results in complementary use of light. Spatial differentiation among coexisting tree species occurs as a result of adaptation of crown architecture and shoot/leaf morphology to the spatially variable light conditions of the canopy, sub-canopy, and understory. Temporal differentiation occurs as a result of variation in leaf phenology and photosynthetic activity. The arrangement of leaves in both space and time is an important aspect of plant strategies for light interception and determines photosynthetic carbon gain of the plant canopy. For example, at the shoot level, morphological and phenological differentiation between long and short shoots reflects their respective shoot functions, indicating that spatial and temporal strategies for light interception are linked. Complementary use of light is a consequence of the spatiotemporal differentiation in light interception among coexisting species. Because coexisting species may show differentiation in strategies for resource acquisition (functional diversification) or convergence with respect to some limiting resource (functional convergence), the relative importance of various crown functions and their contribution to growth and survival of individuals need to be evaluated quantitatively and compared among coexisting species. © 2009 The Ecological Society of Japan.

    2010, Ecological Research, 25 (4), 715 - 722, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Ken-Ichi Yoshimura, Akira Mori

    We compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of understory trees of Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. growing adjacent to each other in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA. We hypothesized that, despite contrasting branching patterns and crown architectures, the two species should exhibit convergence in leaf display and photosynthetic gain per light intercepting area, because these are important properties determining their survival in the light-limited understory. The branching pattern of A. amabilis was regular (normal shoot-length distribution, less variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio), whereas that of T. heterophylla was more plastic (positively skewed shoot-length distribution, more variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio). The two species had similar shoot morphologies: number of leaves per unit shoot length and leaf to axis dry mass ratio. Leaf morphology, in contrast, was significantly different. Leaves of A. amabilis were larger and heavier than those of T. heterophylla, which resulted in lower mass-based photosynthetic rate for A. amabilis. Despite these differences, the two species had similar levels of leaf overlap and area-based photosynthetic characteristics. Needle longevity of A. amabilis was nearly twice that of T. heterophylla. The leaf N contents of current and 1-year-old leaves were lower for A. amabilis than for T. heterophylla. However, the leaf N content of A. amabilis did not change from current leaves to 6-year-old leaves, whereas that of T. heterophylla decreased with increasing leaf age. Abies amabilis had deeper crowns than T. heterophylla and retained branches with low relative growth rates. Longer branch retention may compensate for the lower branch-level assimilation rate of A. amabilis. We inferred that the convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics between A. amabilis and T. heterophylla may contribute to the persistence of both species in the understory of this forest.

    Aug. 2009, Tree Physiology, 29 (8), 989 - 998, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Naoki Makita, Yasuhiro Hirano, Masako Dannoura, Yuji Kominami, Takeo Mizoguchi, Hiroaki Ishii, Yoichi Kanazawa

    Fine root respiration is a significant component of carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Although fine roots differ functionally from coarse roots, these root types have been distinguished based on arbitrary diameter cut-offs (e.g., 2 or 5 mm). Fine root morphology is directly related to physiological function, but few attempts have been made to understand the relationships between morphology and respiration of fine roots. To examine relationships between respiration rates and morphological traits of fine roots (0.15-1.4 mm in diameter) of mature Quercus serrata Murr., we measured respiration of small fine root segments in the field with a portable closed static chamber system. We found a significant power relationship between mean root diameter and respiration rate. Respiration rates of roots < 0.4 mm in mean diameter were high and variable, ranging from 3.8 to 11.3 nmol CO(2)g(-1)s(-1), compared with those of larger diameter roots (0.4-1.4 mm), which ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 nmol CO(2)g(-1)s(-1). Fine root respiration rate was positively correlated with specific root length (SRL) as well as with root nitrogen (N) concentration. For roots < 0.4 mm in diameter, SRL had a wider range (11.3-80.4 mg(-1)) and was more strongly correlated with respiration rate than diameter. Our results indicate that a more detailed classification of fine roots < 2.0 mm is needed to represent the heterogeneity of root respiration and to evaluate root biomass and root morphological traits.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Apr. 2009, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 29 (4), 579 - 585, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Takashi Otoda, Hiroaki Ishii

    We compared soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (G (T)), hydraulic conductivity and water-relations characteristics of leaves between reiterated axes (produced by sprouting of suppressed buds) and sequential axes (produced by elongation of terminal buds) on the same branch to investigate how basal reiteration affected the hydraulic architecture of mature Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. trees. Given similar light conditions, G (T) was higher for leaves on reiterated shoots than for those on sequential shoots. However, where leaves on sequential shoots received more light, G (T) was similar to that of leaves on reiterated shoots, suggesting that some compensatory mechanism worked to increase hydraulic conductance to the more distal sequential shoots, which have higher potential for carbon gain. Both xylem- and leaf-specific conductivities were higher for reiterated than sequential shoots. Pressure-volume measurements indicated that leaves on reiterated shoots were more vulnerable to water stress, suggesting that they developed under favorable water status. Because basal reiteration occurs on lower-order branch axes, reiterated shoots have better connectivity to higher conducting xylem and this may contribute to favorable water status. As trees grow larger, hydraulic pathlength and hydraulic resistance both increase as numbers of branch junctions and nodes increase. Our results suggest that basal reiteration improves the hydraulic functional status of mature C. camphora trees by shortening the hydraulic pathway and increasing hydraulic conductance to transpiring leaves.

    SPRINGER, Apr. 2009, TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, 23 (2), 317 - 323, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • M. Abdul Maleque, Kaoru Maeto, Hiroaki T. Ishii

    Here we review the bioindicator potentials of several arthropod groups in forest management. First, we describe the indicator potentials of frequently used arthropod groups in general forest management, and then evaluate ecosystem function and plural taxonomic groups to infer forest biodiversity We then review indicator potentials of arthropod groups to explore the ecological consequences of forest management practices. Different arthropod groups respond differently to forest management. Ants, carabid beetles, and spiders often respond to local-scale, disturbance-induced vegetation development caused by thinning and can be used to infer the ecological suitability of forest management treatments. Dung beetles and moths respond to habitat alterations caused by forest fragmentation and can indicate the suitability of landscape-level forest management techniques. Butterflies and cerambycid beetles respond highly positively to the presence of herbaceous plants and understory trees and can be used to infer the integrity of thinning treatments in forest management. Syrphid flies, which are strong flyers associated with vegetation complexity, can be used as bioindicators of landscape-level forest management practices. Monitoring regulatory service providers may also help when designing forest management practices. We propose using arthropod bioindicator groups to effectively design and assess ecologically sustainable management plans for both natural and plantation forests.

    SPRINGER JAPAN KK, Feb. 2009, APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY, 44 (1), 1 - 11, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 樹高成長の制限とそのメカニズム

    Ishii, H, 鍋島絵里

    2009, 日本森林学会誌, 90:297-305, 297 - 305, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 光環境に対するネズミモチとトウネズミモチの葉と枝の生理・形態的反応の違い

    大杉祥広, Ishii, H

    2009, 日本緑化工学会誌, 35(1), 45-50, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Sumihiro Inoue, Tetsuoh Shirota, Yasushi Mitsuda, Hiroaki Ishii, Koichiro Gyokusen

    We studied how the dominant factor affecting stem volume growth changes during stand development in a monoclonal stand of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don. Stem analysis was used to compare growth history of trees in an unthinned plot (closed canopy) and a thinned plot (open canopy). In the unthinned plot, the dominant factor affecting stem volume growth was basal area (BA) before canopy closure, whereas neighborhood competition index (CI) was the dominant factor after canopy closure. In contrast, the dominant factor affecting stem volume in the thinned plot was BA throughout stand development. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between BA and CI continued to increase after canopy closure and size rank among individuals became increasingly fixed. Our results indicated that stem volume growth shifts from size-dependent to competition-dependent growth at canopy closure. The apparent correlation between tree size and growth rate observed in many previous studies may be the result of competition-mediated positive feedback between size and growth.

    SPRINGER TOKYO, Nov. 2008, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 23 (6), 953 - 964, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Ecological restoration of a fragmented urban shrine forest in southwestern Hyogo Prefecture, Japan: Initial effects of the removal of invasive Trachycarpus fortunei

    Ishii, H, Iwasaki, A

    Nov. 2008, Urban Ecosystems, 11: 309-312, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Masaki Okuda, Akihiro Sumida, Hiroaki Ishii, Valentina P. Vetrova, Toshihiko Hara

    We investigated the spatial distribution and growth of the Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in a valley-foothill larch-birch (Larix cajanderi-Betula platyphylla as canopy trees) mixed forest of fire origin located in central Kamchatka with the aim of elucidating the ecological features of P. pumila when it is an undergrowth species in a forest. The spatial distribution of all individuals of all tree species was clumped, and the spatial distribution of the two canopy tree species did not repulsively affect that of P. pumila (i.e., its establishment site). These results suggest that the regeneration of P. pumila does not depend on canopy gaps. However, the analysis using a growth model indicated that the canopy trees negatively affected the growth of P. pumila and that the negative effect of L. cajanderi on P. pumila growth was stronger than that of B. platyphylla. The direction of the crown extension of P. pumila was weakly related to the open-space direction. Our results suggest that, although the spatial pattern of establishment of P. pumila is not repulsed by the distribution of canopy trees, the crown can spread horizontally toward the more sparsely populated areas of the canopy trees where they may have higher growth rates.

    SPRINGER TOKYO, Sep. 2008, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 23 (5), 831 - 840, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Line thinning promotes stand growth and understory diversity in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations

    Ishii, H, Maleque, M.A, Taniguchi, S

    Sep. 2008, Journal of Forest Research, 13: 73-78, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki T. Ishii, Gregory M. Jennings, Stephen C. Sillett, George W. Koch

    We studied changes in morphological and physiological characteristics of leaves and shoots along a height gradient in Sequoia sempervirens, the tallest tree species on Earth, to investigate whether morphological and physiological acclimation to the vertical light gradient was constrained by hydrostatic limitation in the upper crown. Bulk leaf water potential (Psi) decreased linearly and light availability increased exponentially with increasing height in the crown. During the wet season, Psi was lower in the outer than inner crown. C isotope composition of leaves (delta(13)C) increased with increasing height indicating greater photosynthetic water use efficiency in the upper crown. Leaf and shoot morphology changed continuously with height. In contrast, their relationships with light availability were discontinuous: morphological characteristics did not correspond to increasing light availability above 55-85 m. Mass-based chlorophyll concentration (chl) decreased with increasing height and increasing light availability. In contrast, area-based chl remained constant or increased with increasing height. Mass-based maximum rate of net photosynthesis (P (max)) decreased with increasing height, whereas area-based P (max) reached maximum at 78.4 m and decreased with increasing height thereafter. Mass-based P (max) increased with increasing shoot mass per area (SMA), whereas area-based P (max) was not correlated with SMA in the upper crown. Our results suggest that hydrostatic limitation of morphological development constrains exploitation of light in the upper crown and contributes to reduced photosynthetic rates and, ultimately, reduced height growth at the tops of tall S. sempervirens trees.

    SPRINGER, Jul. 2008, OECOLOGIA, 156 (4), 751 - 763, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki T. Ishii, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Shigeru Uemura, Koichi Takahashi, Yuko T. Hanba, Akihiro Sumida, Toshihiko Hara

    We investigated how removal of understory dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis Makino et Shibata) affected growth and water use of young Betula ermanii Cham. trees in a secondary forest in northern Japan. We compared current-year shoot morphology, leaf water-relations characteristics, and whole-tree water use of B. ermanii trees growing with dwarf bamboo in the understory (intact plot) to those of trees growing where dwarf bamboo was experimentally removed (removal plot). Current-year shoot length and internode frequency increased, while internode length and individual leaf area decreased in response to dwarf bamboo removal. Carbon isotope composition (delta C-13) of leaves did not change indicating that leaf water-use efficiency was unaffected by the presence/absence of dwarf bamboo. Pressure-volume analysis indicated that leaves in the removal plot had lower water uptake ability. During mid-summer, trees in the removal plot sustained high sap flow velocity after peaking at midday, while that of trees in the intact plot declined. In addition, whole-tree sap flux and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance were both higher for trees in the removal plot. We inferred that the observed changes reflect hydraulic homeostasis of B. ermanii trees to maintain constant water-use efficiency in response to belowground competition with dwarf bamboo. Removal of dwarf bamboo is, therefore, an effective silvicultural prescription to enhance growth of overstory trees by relieving belowground competition for soil water.

    SPRINGER TOKYO, Apr. 2008, JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, 13 (2), 101 - 109, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 兵庫県日野神社社叢における27年間の森林群落動態

    武野真也, Ishii, H

    2008, 人と自然, 18:21-28, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • M. Abdul Maleque, Hiroaki T. Ishii, Kaoru Maeto, Shingo Taniguchi

    We evaluated the effectiveness of line thinning, a new silvicultural technique, toward restoring diversity of Coleoptera in overstocked Cryptomeria japonica D. Don plantations in central Japan. We compared the abundance of some common Coleoptera families between line-thinned stands and adjacent unthinned stands in two plantations: low-elevation Sugi site (4 years since thinning) and high-elevation Kuchiotani site (6 years since thinning). Many bettle families comprising various functional groups such as plant feeders, wood borers, rotten wood feeders, root feeders, fungus feeders, dung feeders, and scavengers were more abundant in the line-thinned stands than in the unthinned stands. Furthermore, some important families were missing from the unthinned stands. There were strong positive relationships between Coleopteran abundance and understory vegetation. Our results suggest that line thinning may potentially increase biodiversity in overstocked C. japonica plantations by restoring important ecological processes such as food-web interactions (pollination, predation, herbivory, decomposition, parasitism, etc.), and habitat conditions.

    SPRINGER, Sep. 2007, ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS, 1 (3), 175 - 185, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Physiological and ecological implications of adaptive reiteration as a mechanism for crown maintenance after trees reach maximum size

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D, Kennedy, M

    Jun. 2007, Tree Physiology, 27: 455-462, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Physiological and ecological implications of adaptive reiteration as a mechanism for crown maintenance and longevity

    Hiroaki T. Ishii, E. David Ford, Maureen C. Kennedy

    Reiteration is the process whereby architectural units are replicated within a tree. Both immediate (from apical buds) and delayed (from suppressed or adventitious buds) reiteration can be seen in many tree species where architectural units ranging from clusters of shoots to entire branches and stems are replicated. In large old trees and suppressed trees, delayed reiteration occurs without an obvious external stimulus such as defoliation or traumatic loss of the branch apex. This suggests that, in trees that are growth-limited, reiteration is an adaptive mechanism for crown maintenance. We discuss theories about the aging process and how delayed adaptive reiteration may help maintain crown productivity and increase longevity. These include: (1) reducing the respiration /photo synthesis ratio; (2) increasing hydraulic conductance to newly developing foliage; (3) reducing nutrient loss from the tree; and (4) rejuvenating the apical meristem. The ability to reiterate various architectural units may contribute to increasing lifetime reproductive output by prolonging tree longevity. Further studies on the physiological and ecological implications of reiteration are needed to understand its adaptive significance in the life history of trees.

    HERON PUBLISHING, Mar. 2007, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 27 (3), 455 - 462, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Suzuki D., Ishii H., Kanazawa Y.

    We investigated changes in the spatial distribution of trees in a 90-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa plantation owned by Hieizan Enryakuji Temple using the L-function. The plantation is an example of long-rotation silviculture for producing largediameter timber. After two thinning treatments, minimum nearest neighbor distance increased from 0.15 m to 1.19 m and tree distribution pattern became increasingly regular. The greatest change in tree distribution pattern was observed in the midslope position where large-diameter trees were harvested in the previous thinning. Sufficient tree spacing was realized by the last two thinnings. However, heavy thinning treatments may have caused a decline in standing volume. Quantitative analysis of tree distribution and stand growth using spatial statistics will contribute to establishing protocols for long-rotation silviculture in old-aged plantations.

    Japanese Forestry Society, 01 Feb. 2007, JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 89 (1), 66 - 70, Japanese

  • M. Abdul Maleque, Hiroaki T. Ishii, Kaoru Maeto, Shingo Taniguchi

    We investigated the effects of line thinning on the abundance of Hymenoptera in two Japanese cedar plantations in northern Hyogo Prefecture, central Japan, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this silvicultural treatment for ecosystem management. Line thinning is a silvicultural treatment practiced in Japan, where linear stand sections are cut (25%-35% of the total number of trees) retaining one to two rows of trees. We used Malaise traps to capture Hymenoptera from the line-thinned stand (treatment plot, including thinned and retained sections) and the unthinned stand (control plot). Overall, the total number of Hymenoptera was greater in the treatment plot than in the control plot. The treatment plot hosted more functional groups and families of Hymenoptera than the control plot in both plantations. In the Kuchiotani plantation (high-elevation site), the overall abundance of Hymenoptera and of many Hymenopteran functional groups were positively correlated with both species richness and biomass of understory plants. In the Sugi plantation (low-elevation site), understory vegetation was less developed and there was no correlation with abundance of Hymenoptera. Our study indicates that line thinning is an effective silvicultural treatment for future management of overstocked Japanese cedar plantations because it can fulfill biodiversity objectives, but the effectiveness may depend on silvicultural and landscape factors.

    SPRINGER TOKYO, Feb. 2007, JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, 12 (1), 14 - 23, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 石井 弘明

    日本森林学会, 2007, 森林科学, 51, 54 - 54, Japanese

  • 岩崎 絢子, Ishii, H

    Various invasive species and escaped ornamentals have been reported to thrive in urban forest fragments. We found Trachycarpus fortunei Wendl. thriving in the shrine forest at Nishinomiya Shrine in southeastern Hyogo Prefecture. In this paper, we report on the complete removal of this species from the forest, the extent of the invasion, and the effect of the removal on the understory light environment. In addition, we assessed the cost of removal in relation to the amount of T. fortunei removed. T. fortunei density in the forest was 649 individuals per hectare, contributing 23% of the total number of trees taller than 1.3 m. Total basal area of T. fortunei was 1.7m2 ha-1, contributing only 3.4% of the total basal area, whereas in high-concentration areas leaf area index of T. fortunei was as high as 2.49-4.60. T. fortunei was especially concentrated in the northern edge of the forest facing a road and in the southwestern edge facing a parking lot. Reproductive individuals were also concentrated near the forest edge. In high-concentration areas, canopy openness in the understory was as low as 6-11%. After removal of T. fortunei, canopy openness increased by 2.2% on average (maximum 5.5%). The total cost of the removal of T. fortunei was 1, 390, 000 yen of which 72.0% was labor costs indicating that the cost of removal increases with the extent of the invasion. Shrine forests have traditionally been left unmanaged. However, this study showed that, active management is necessary to control invasive species if the objective is to sustain near-natural forest conditions. In fragmented urban forests, lack of management does not necessarily result in natural conditions. As such, human intervention may be needed to realize the management objectives of the land owner.

    Japan Association for Landscape Ecology, 2007, 景観生態学, 12:35-43 (1), 35 - 43, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 真鍋徹, Ishii, H, 伊藤啓太郎

    Urban green spaces provide multiple services to humans, such as recreation, disaster-prevention, amenity and amelioration of the environment. They also function as habitat, conduits and sinks for wildlife in urban areas. A cost-effective and technically feasible way to exploit the multiple benefits of urban green space is to utilize existing green space rather than to create new ones. Shrine/temple forests, in which indigenous regional vegetation has been preserved in near-natural state, can potentially act as centers for preservation and management of urban green space. Research in shrine/temple forests began with the phytosociological description of the vegetation. In recent years, the realization that shrine/temple forests are a type of fragmented forest, has lead to research regarding community structure/dynamics, habitat functions, and physicalenvironment. Research has spread, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to the effects of social factors on forest structure/dynamics, such as management both within and around the forest, separation of Shinto and Buddhism and policy such as the Urban Parks Law. Research has elucidated the need to assess the functions of shrine/ temple forests from a large-scale perspective and to consider human and social factors in addition to ecological factors. In addition, we now have a scientific basis to argue that human management is essential in order to utilize shrine/temple forests as central urban green space. We must accumulate and integrate research at multiple scales using multiple methods for future conservation and management of not only shrine/temple forests, but urban green space in general.

    Japan Association for Landscape Ecology, 2007, 景観生態学, 12:1-7 (1), 1 - 7, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 樹木はどこまで大きくなれるのか?―世界最大の樹木,ジャイアントセコイアの生理学的研究―

    石井 弘明

    日本生物科学者協会, 2007, 生物科学, 59:57-61 (1), 57 - 61,図巻頭1p, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 京都府北部の無間伐ヒノキ高齢林における斜面位置と林分構造の関係

    辻貴文, Ishii, H

    2007, 日本森林学会誌, 89:160-166, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, Satoshi Kitaoka, Taiji Fujisaki, Yutaka Maruyama, Takayoshi Koike

    We compared shoot and needle morphology and photosynthesis in Picea glehnii (Friedr. Schmidt) M.T. Mast. and Picea jezoensis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Carr. trees planted on immature volcanic ash and well-developed brown forest soils to investigate whether species differences in morphological and physiological plasticity affected tree growth on different soil types. Height growth of P. glehnii was reduced by about 10% on volcanic ash compared with forest soil, whereas that of P. jezoensis was reduced by more than 60%. Needle morphology of P. glehnii was unaffected by soil type. In contrast, needles of P. jezoensis trees growing on volcanic ash were shorter, narrower and thicker, with less dry mass and area, than those of trees growing on forest soil, and specific needle area was lower, indicating lower foliar light-interception efficiency. In both species, changes in needle morphology with increasing irradiance were similar in trees growing on both soil types, indicating that plasticity of needle morphology was unaffected by soil type. In both species, shoot mass and shoot silhouette area were lower and needle mass per unit shoot mass was higher in trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing on forest soil. Trees of both species had more needles per unit shoot length, lower shoot silhouette to projected needle area ratios and lower shoot silhouette areas per unit shoot mass (SAM) on volcanic ash than on forest soil, indicating lower shoot-level light-interception efficiency. For P. glehnii, the response of shoot morphology to increasing irradiance was similar on both soil types, with the exception of SAM, which showed lower plasticity in trees growing on volcanic ash. In contrast, shoot-level morphological plasticity of P. jezoensis was reduced in trees growing on volcanic ash. Light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) of P. glehnii was unaffected by soil type, whereas mass-based Pmax of P. jezoensis was lower in trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing on forest soil. In P. jezoensis trees growing on forest soil, area-based Pmax increased with increasing irradiance, but this response was not observed in trees growing on volcanic ash. As a result, area-based Pmax at the top of the canopy was 39 to 54% lower in trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing on forest soil. Our results indicate that constraints on morphological acclimation to high irradiances may contribute to reduced height growth of P. jezoensis on volcanic ash. © 2007 Heron Publishing.

    Heron Publishing, 2007, Tree Physiology, 27 (11), 1595 - 1605, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Budiadi, HT Ishii, MS Sabarnurdin, P Suryanto, Y Kanazawa

    We investigated age-related changes in biomass cycling and soil properties in a kayu putih (Melaleuca leucadendron LINN, Myrtaceae) with improved shifting cultivation system in East Java, Indonesia, to design better management plans for sustainable kayu putih oil production and crop yield. Harvested biomass of kayu putih increased markedly from 7- to 15-year-old stands, but did not increase further in older stands averaging 2.41 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Kayu putih contributed 1.9-31.0% of total biomass production. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuber was the largest component of biomass cycling. Harvested biomass of cassava decreased with increasing stand age and there was a trade-off between above- and below-ground biomass productions. Harvested biomass of maize (Zea mays L.) grain was constant throughout stand growth, whereas returned biomass fluctuated. With increasing stand age, soil organic matter (SOM) accumulated in soil indicating that returned biomass was decomposing slowly. Content of primary nutrients did not change with stand age. The contribution of cassava to harvested biomass was considerably larger than that of kayu putih. For this reason, selection of cassava as a single companion crop may not be suitable for sustaining kayu putih oil production. Maize may be a good companion crop for kayu putih because it produces a constant grain yield throughout stand growth and its contribution to harvested biomass is comparable to that of kayu putih. In addition, maize is shallow-rooted and causes less below-ground competition with deep-rooted kayu putih trees.

    SPRINGER, Jun. 2006, AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS, 67 (2), 135 - 145, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Biomass and dynamics of attached dead branches in the canopy of 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees

    Ishii, H, Kadotani, T

    May 2006, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36:378-389, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • The use of arthropods as indicators of ecosystem integrity in forest management

    M. Abdul Maleque, Hiroaki T. Ishii, Kaoru Maeto

    Arthropods play vital roles in various ecosystem functions and respond acutely to habitat manipulation. Diversity and community dynamics of arthropods are strongly correlated with ecosystem functioning. Arthropod community structure reflects habitat heterogeneity, as well as development and recovery of forest ecosystems after natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Arthropod community structure also reflects the degree of fragmentation and isolation of forest ecosystems on the landscape. Arthropods are good indicators of the overall biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of forests and can be used for evaluating and designing sound ecosystem management plans.

    SOC AMER FORESTERS, Apr. 2006, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, 104 (3), 113 - 117, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Tree architecture research for integrating tree physiology and forest community dynamics

    Ishii, H, Yoshimura, K, Otoda, T

    Apr. 2006, 日本森林学会誌, 88:290-301, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 西宮神社社叢林における台風によるクスノキ老齢木の被害

    石井 弘明, 岩崎 絢子

    2006, 人と自然, 16:51-56, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Arthropods as indicators of biological diversity in temperate forest ecosystems

    Maleque、M.D.A, Ishii, H, Maeto, K

    2006, Journal of Forestry, 104:113-117, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 樹高成長の限界はどこまでか? -樹高100mのセコイアメスギの樹冠を調べる-

    石井 弘明

    日本生物科学者協会, 2005, 生物科学, 57 49-53 (1), 49 - 53, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 孤立社寺林の植生構造にみられる林縁効果

    岩崎 絢子, 石井 弘明

    2005, 人と自然, 15 29-42, 29 - 42, Japanese

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Variation in kayu putih(Melaleuca leucadendron LINN) oil quality under different farming systems in Java, Indonesia

    Budi Adi, Hiroaki Ishii, Yoichi Kanazawa

    Articles

    Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC, 2005, Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 8・1・15-20 (1), 15 - 20, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Budiadi, Y Kanazawa, HT Ishii, MS Sabarnurdin, P Suryanto

    Kayu putih oil, extracted from the kayu putih tree (Melaleuca leucadendron), is an important non-timber forest product (NTFP) in Indonesia. We compared productivity of kayu putih tree plantations among three different sites in East, Central, and West Java, Indonesia. Leaf-twig, and branch production per tree differed significantly among the three sites. Tree biomass production was highest at the site in West Java practicing tumpangsari (a form of shifting cultivation) of kayu putih with rice (Oryza sativa) on alluvial soils. Tree biomass production was lowest at the site in East Java, practicing tumpangsari of kayu putih with maize (Zea mays) and cassava (Mani- hot esculenta). At this site, tree biomass production increased with increasing stand age and low production was compensated by greater biomass yield of companion crops. Intermediate tree biomass production was observed at the site in Central Java where intercropping is only practiced for the first two years after plantation establishment. Production of tree biomass and kayu putih oil did not increase with increasing stand density, indicating that at a given site, high tree stocking did not lead to high production. Stand-level productivity of the plantations increased with increasing stand age and maximum productivity was attained at 15 to 35 years, after which productivity declined. This suggested unsustainable stand productivity as plantations increase in age.

    SPRINGER, Jan. 2005, AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS, 64 (2), 143 - 155, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Microclimate mitigation by shrine/temple forests in southeastern Hyogo Prefecture

    ISHII Hiroaki, SATO S, IWASAKI A

    2005, Nature and Human Activities, 9 47-56, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • J Dolezal, H Ishii, VP Vetrova, A Sumida, T Hara

    Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems greater than or equal to1-3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0.4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem density leaving much space for individual growth, greater relative importance of below-ground competition in this site of nutrient-poor volcanic soil, and the vegetative origin of B. platyphylla. Larix cajanderi growing under B. platyphylla had steady diameter growth during the first 20 years, after which growth declined. It is suggested that early succession fits the tolerance model of succession, while inhibition dominates in later stages. (C) 2004 Annals of Botany Company.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Sep. 2004, ANNALS OF BOTANY, 94 (3), 333 - 343, English

    Scientific journal

  • MC Kennedy, ED Ford, H Ishii

    Reiteration is an important process in the maintenance of tree crowns and in plant longevity. We use a geometric simulation model of branch growth to explore differences in longevity between old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Abies grandis (D. Don ex Lamb.) Lindl. branches. Reiteration is defined through rules that reflect apical dominance relationships, and these rules are used to define shoot cluster units (SCU) on P. menziesii branches. Reiteration through epicormic production dominates growth in simulated P. menziesii branches and is shown to be a major factor that differentiates growth between P. menziesii and A. grandis. Branch growth is shown to be highly sensitive to rules for bifurcation and capacity for reiteration. The rules employed in the model that define epicormic initiation and SCU independence reveal possible physiological mechanisms through which reiteration occurs in P. menziesii. A simple morphological rule fails to simulate branch growth adequately, whereas a physiological rule through epicormic initiation after release from inhibition of a lateral axis yields realistic simulated branches. Branch growth is best simulated through a combination of physiological controls and morphological rules.

    NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA, Jul. 2004, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE BOTANIQUE, 82 (7), 892 - 909, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Exploring the relationships among canopy structure, stand productivity, and biodiversity of temperature forest ecosystems

    HT Ishii, S Tanabe, T Hiura

    Impacts of human activity on forest ecosystems are most pronounced in the temperate region. Simplification of stand structure has resulted in diminished ecosystem function and biodiversity decline, raising much debate over future management policies. Ecosystem functions and biodiversity may be enhanced by managing forests for increased structural complexity. However, processes that determine relationships among structural complexity, ecosystem functions, and biodiversity of forest ecosystems remain unclear. In this review, we present examples of studies conducted at two canopy research facilities located in different types of temperate forest to illustrate that structural complexity of forest canopies enhances stand productivity and biodiversity: (1) development of structurally complex canopies comprising various tree species enhances stand productivity by promoting complementary resource utilization among species through spatial, physiological, and temporal differentiation; and (2) development of complex canopy structure enhances biodiversity of canopy-dwelling organisms by creating a resource-rich habitat. These ecological observations stress the importance of including three-dimensional structural attributes of forest canopies in management plans and silvicultural prescriptions that aim to maintain ecosystem functions and biodiversity.

    SOC AMER FORESTERS, Jun. 2004, FOREST SCIENCE, 50 (3), 342 - 355, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Measurement of three-dimensional morphology and surface area of conifer shoots and roots using the desktop scanner and silhouette image analysis.

    ISHII Hiroaki, DANNOURA Masako

    Article

    Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC, 2004, Eurasian Journal of Forest Research., 7:27-32 (1), 27 - 32, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Boundary-line analysis of tree growth and photosymthesis.

    ISHII Hiroaki, AIMURA H, OOISHI M

    Kobe University, 2004, Memoires of the Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University., 22:143-150, 143 - 150, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Acclimation of shoot and needle morphology and photosynthesis of two Picea species to differences in soil nutrient availability

    H Ishii, M Ooishi, Y Maruyama, T Koike

    To investigate morphological acclimation to differences in nutrient availability, we compared shoot and needle morphology of Picea glehnii (Friedr. Schmidt) A T. Mast. and Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc.) Carriere trees growing on nutrient-poor, volcanic ash and nutrient-rich, brown forest soil. Trees of both species. were shorter and had more open canopies when growing on volcanic ash than when growing on brown forest soil. Nutrient-poor conditions limited height growth less in P. glehnii than in P. jezoensis. In both species, trees growing on volcanic ash had shorter annual increments in the previous year and more needles per shoot length and, hence, a smaller shoot silhouette area (SSA) relative to needle dry mass (NDM) than trees growing on brown forest soil. Soil type had less effect on shoot projected needle area (PNA). Total needle area (TNA) of P. glehnii shoots was similar between soil types, whereas TNA of P. jezoensis was lower in trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing on, brown forest soil. For both species, low SSA in response to nutrient-poor conditions resulted in low shoot SSA/PNA ratios, indicating high within-shoot self-shading. Shoot SSA/TNA of P. glehnii was lower in trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing on brown forest soil, indicating that needles were sun-acclimated. In contrast, shoot SSA/TNA of P. jezoensis was higher in trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing on brown forest soil. The contrasting response of TNA to low nutrient availability was associated with species-specific differences in needle morphology. Needles of P. glehnii growing on volcanic ash were slightly shorter, wider, thicker and heavier than those of trees growing on brown forest soil, indicating morphological acclimation to high irradiance. Needles of P. jezoensis growing on volcanic ash were shorter than those of trees growing on brown forest soil, but did not show morphological acclimation to high irradiance in width, thickness or mass. For both species, nutrient-poor conditions decreased maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) per NDM. However, when expressed per PNA, the decrease in A(max) was reduced, and when expressed per SSA,A(max) trees growing on volcanic ash than in trees growing ing on brown forest soil. On volcanic ash, A(max) per NDM was lower for P. glehnii than for P. jezoensis. However, morphological changes at the shoot and needle levels reversed this trend when A(max) was expressed per SSA or per PNA. The species-specific differences in morphological response to differences in soil nutrient availability suggest that P. glehnii is more tolerant of nutrient-poor conditions, whereas P. jezoensis is better at exploiting nutrient-rich soils.

    HERON PUBLISHING, May 2003, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 23 (7), 453 - 461, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Comparative crown form and branching pattern of four coexisting tree species in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest.

    Ishii, H, Ford,E.D, Sprugel,D.G

    Article

    Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC, 2003, Eurasian Journal of Forest Research., 6:99-109 (2), 99 - 109, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Age-related development of crown structure in coastal Douglas-fir trees

    H Ishii, N McDowell

    We compared crown structure among 20-, 40-, and 450-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. (Franco) var. menziesii) trees, and present a conceptual model of crown development. The model is based on the idea that the tree crown can be considered a vertical chronosequence of cohorts of branches that increase in age from upper- to lower-crown. Mean branch volume increased from upper- to lower-crown following the exponential or general logistic growth curve. Maximum branch volume occurred in the lower-crown for 20- and 40-year-old trees, while it occurred in the middle-crown for 450-year-old trees. For the 20- and 40-year-old trees, branch death did not occur in the upper-most part of the crown, and branch density decreased exponentially for the lower one-half and two-thirds of the crown, respectively. For the 450-year-old trees, branch death occurred and branch density decreased exponentially for the full extent of the crown. Epicormic branches increased branch density in the lower-crown, and moderated the rate of decrease in branch density. For the 20- and 40-year-old trees, branch diameter distributions changed from an abundance of small-diameter branches in the upper-crown, to positively skewed bimodal distributions in the middle-crown, and unimodal distributions comprised of surviving large-diameter branches in the lower-crown. For the 450-year-old trees, branch diameter distributions in the upper-crown were unimodal consisting mostly of original branches. In the middle- to lower-crown, branch diameter distributions were bimodal comprised of small-diameter epicormic branches and large diameter original branches. For the 20- and 40-year-old trees, the relationship between mean branch volume and branch density showed two distinct phases. In the upper-crown where branch death was not observed, and mean branch volume increased with decreasing height while branch density remained relatively constant. In the middle- to lower-crown where branch death occurred, mean branch volume increased while branch density decreased exponentially with decreasing height. For the 450-year-old trees, branch death occurred, and mean branch volume increased while branch density decreased exponentially with decreasing height for the full extent of the crown. The relationship between mean branch volume and branch density after the onset of branch death defined the branch self-pruning line/curve. This relationship reflected sequential changes in the population structure of cohorts of branches growing under increasingly shady conditions as the crown grows taller and new cohorts develop above old ones. As a result of the combined effects of branch growth and death, vertical distribution of branch volume shifted toward the upper-crown with increasing tree age. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Oct. 2002, FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, 169 (3), 257 - 270, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • N McDowell, H Barnard, BJ Bond, T Hinckley, RM Hubbard, H Ishii, B Kostner, F Magnani, JD Marshall, FC Meinzer, N Phillips, MG Ryan, D Whitehead

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A(1):A(s)) of trees has been hypothesized to decrease as trees become older and taller. Theory suggests that A(1):A(s) must decrease to maintain leaf-specific hydraulic sufficiency as path length, gravity, and tortuosity constrain whole-plant hydraulic conductance. We tested the hypothesis that A(1):A(s) declines with tree height. Whole-tree A(1):A(s) was measured on 15 individuals of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) ranging in height from 13 to 62 m (aged 20-450 years). A(1):A(s) declined substantially as height increased (P=0.02). Our test of the hypothesis that A(1):A(s) declines with tree height was extended using a combination of original and published data on nine species across a range of maximum heights and climates. Meta-analysis of 13 whole-tree studies revealed a consistent and significant reduction in A(1):A(s) with increasing height (P<0.05). However, two species (Picea abies and Abies balsamea) exhibited an increase in A(1):A(s) with height, although the reason for this is not clear. The slope of the relationship between A(1):A(s) and tree height (&UDelta;A(1):A(s)/&UDelta;h) was unrelated to mean annual precipitation. Maximum potential height was positively correlated with &UDelta;(A)1:A(s)/&UDelta;h. The decrease in A(1):A(s) with increasing tree size that we observed in the majority of species may be a homeostatic mechanism that partially compensates for decreased hydraulic conductance as trees grow in height.

    SPRINGER-VERLAG, Jun. 2002, OECOLOGIA, 132 (1), 12 - 20, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Variation in specific needle area of old-growth Douglas-fir in relation to needle age, within-crown position and epicormic shoot production

    H Ishii, ED Ford, ME Boscolo, AC Manriquez, ME Wilson, TM Hinckley

    Variation in specific needle area (SNA; cm(2) projected fresh needle area g(-1) oven-dried needle weight) was investigated in relation to needle age, within-crown position and epicormic shoot production in 450-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. (Franco) var. menziesii) trees. Specific needle area decreased with increasing needle age. The magnitude and rate of change in SNA with needle age were greatest for lower-crown branches, and decreased toward the middle- and upper-crown branches. For all branches, there was no difference between regular and epicormic shoots in the relationship between SNA and needle age. Specific needle area decreased with increasing distance from branch base, and this relationship was significant for the majority of needle age classes of the upper- and middle-crown branches. In the lower-crown branches, SNA did not vary with distance from branch base for the majority of needle age classes. For all branches, there was no difference between regular and epicormic shoots in the relationship between SNA and distance from branch base for the majority of needle age classes. These results indicate that renewal of foliage by epicormic shoot production maintains needle quality. Branch SNA increased linearly with decreasing height in the crown at a mean rate of 0.951 +/- 0.110 cm(2) g(-1) per vertical meter. Total needle area of branches was estimated from total needle dry weight taking into account within-branch variation in SNA. Analyses of allometric relationships between branch size and foliage amount (needle area and needle dry weight) showed that branch length was a better predictor of foliage amount than branch diameter for old Douglas-fir trees. Total needle dry weight and needle area of the sample trees, estimated from branch length and branch height and taking into account vertical within-crown variation in branch SNA, ranged from 42.4 to 154.2 kg and from 246.2 to 816.0 m(2) per tree, respectively.

    HERON PUBLISHING, Jan. 2002, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 22 (1), 31 - 40, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Hiroaki Ishii, E. David Ford, C. Elaine Dinnie

    Basal reiteration (epicormic shoot production from older branch axes) occurred continuously and repeatedly in branches of 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii (coastal Douglas-fir) trees reproducing sections of branches comprising less than 100 to as many as 10 000 foliated shoots. Basal reiteration occurred mostly from primary and secondary branch axes but also occurred from higher-order axes if lower-order axes had died back. Basal reiteration occurred in distal sections of upper-crown branches, while it occurred in more proximal sections of middle- and lower-crown branches, indicating that basal reiteration works to distribute foliage more uniformly within branches that have reached maximum size. Basal reiteration occurred repeatedly producing two to six generations of reiterated axes within branches. Less than 22.5% of foliated shoots on branches were produced by sequential branching of the primary axis. Basal reiteration also maintained a constant rate of new shoot production within the branch. Growth-ring analysis showed that basal reiteration occurred over a wide range of axis ages (5-58 years). In conjunction with previous studies, we showed that adaptive reiteration of various architectural units by epicormic shoot production is an inherent process that maintains foliage in the crown of old P. menziesii trees.

    2002, Canadian Journal of Botany, 80 (9), 916 - 926, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Persistence of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in temperate coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest Coast, USA

    H Ishii, D Ford

    Old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forests of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America are characterized by the presence of large, old trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Douglas-fir). Colonizing soon after a stand-replacing disturbance, P. menziesii persists in these forests, coexisting for centuries with the late-successional species. P. menziesii survives by maintaining emergent status in the uppermost part of the forest canopy, above the crowns of competing late-successional species. After reaching maximum tree height and crown size, P. menziesii maintains shoots and foliage of the established crown by epicormic shoot production. In this review, we propose that attaining emergent status in the upper canopy combined with the process of crown maintenance contributes to the persistence of P. menziesii into later stages of succession, making this species a long-lived pioneer that between infrequent disturbances can coexist with late-successional species for centuries.

    ACAD SCI CZECH REPUBLIC INST BOTANY, 2002, FOLIA GEOBOTANICA, 37 (1), 63 - 69, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Crown structure of old-growth Douglas-fir in the western Cascade Range, Washington

    H Ishii, ME Wilson

    Crown structure of old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) is characterized by low live-branch density, numerous dead branches and epicormic branches, high branch-size variability, and large gaps in the crown. These features define structural complexity of the crown and create variable crown microenvironments. For the 60 m tall, 400-year-old Douglas-fir trees measured in this study, number of live branches decreased and dead branches increased from the upper to lower crown. Dead branches were found below the lowest live branch indicating that crown recession had occurred. Live-branch biomass culminated at 45 m and decreased markedly below 35 m. Numerous vertical gaps between branches occurred below 40 m. Epicormic branches accounted for 14.6-47.5% of the total number of live branches per tree and contributed to increased crown depth. Epicormic branches filled inner regions of the crown, and contributed to increased branch-size variability. A model of crown structure developed for young trees could be fit to the upper crown of the study trees but could not be applied to the middle to lower crown because of increased branch-size variability. Relative levels of photosynthetically active radiation in the crown decreased with decreasing height, but a local peak occurred around 35-40 m, coinciding with the height of marked decrease in live-branch biomass.

    CANADIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING, NRC RESEARCH PRESS, Jul. 2001, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH-REVUE CANADIENNE DE RECHERCHE FORESTIERE, 31 (7), 1250 - 1261, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • The method of synthesis in ecology

    ED Ford, H Ishii

    Synthesis of results from different investigations is an important activity for ecologists but when compared with analysis the method of synthesis has received little attention, Ecologists usually proceed intuitively and this can lead to a problem in defining differences between the syntheses made by different scientists. It also leads to criticism from scientists favoring analytical approaches that the construction of general theory is an activity that does not follow the scientific method. We outline a methodology for scientific inference about integrative concepts and the syntheses made in constructing them and illustrate how this can be applied in the development of general theory from investigations into particular ecological systems, The objective is to construct a causal scientific explanation, This has four characteristics. (1) It defines causal and/or organizational processes that describe how systems function. (2) These processes are consistent - under the same conditions they will produce the same effect, (3) A causal scientific explanation provides general information about events of a similar kind. (4) When experiments are possible then a designed manipulation will produce a predictable response. The essential characteristic of making synthesis to construct a causal scientific explanation is that it is progressive and we judge progress made by assessing the coherence of the explanation using six criteria: acceptability of individual propositions including that they have been tested with data, consistency of concept definitions, consistency in the type of concepts used in making the explanation, that ad hoc propositions are not used, that there is economy in the number of propositions used, that the explanation applies to broad questions. We illustrate development of a causal scientific explanation for the concept of long-lived pioneer tree species, show how the coherence of this explanation can be assessed, and how it could be improved.

    MUNKSGAARD INT PUBL LTD, Apr. 2001, OIKOS, 93 (1), 153 - 160, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • H. Ishii, D. E. Ford

    Shoots and foliage on branches of old Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii (coastal Douglas-fir) trees are constantly renewed by epicormic shoot production. Epicormic shoots are produced in all parts of the crown, and epicormic buds remain dormant for 5 or 6 years on average. Epicormic shoot production results in reiteration of shoot cluster units (SCUs), an architectural unit of shoot organization within branches. Five phases of SCU development were identified based on relative age structures of regular and epicormic shoots. SCUs produce epicormic branchlets as early as 3 or 4 years of age, and peak production occurred around 6-13 years. Epicormic branchlets occur toward the proximal end of main axes of SCUs, where regular lateral branchlets are no longer producing new shoots. In some lower-crown branches, nearly 50% of shoots and foliage are epicormic shoots. Demographic analysis of SCUs showed that upper-crown branches are still growing in size, while mid- and lower-crown branches have reached maximum size, and are being maintained by reiteration of SCUs. Epicormic shoot production maintains shoots and foliage of old P. menziesii trees after height growth and crown expansion have stopped and may contribute to prolonging tree longevity.

    2001, Canadian Journal of Botany, 79 (3), 251 - 264, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Branch growth and crown form in old coastal Douglas-fir

    H Ishii, JP Clement, DC Shaw

    Theoretical and empirical methods were applied to the analysis of branch growth and crown form in old trees of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France var. menziesii). Conventional use of allometric models proved insufficient in explaining the variability found in the relationship between branch diameter and length. In order to infer the potential pattern of branch growth, a maximum relationship was empirically estimated by selecting maximum points in an incremental fashion. This relationship asymptoted to infinity, suggesting that factors such as damage and die-back may modify the branch diameter-length relationship before an asymptotic maximum length is reached. The difference between the observed branch length and the estimated maximum branch length was found to be a good measure of the degree of branch damage. The degree of damage increased with increasing branch diameter, suggesting that large diameter branches have experienced more extensive damage and/or die-back. This trend was stronger in dead branches than in live branches. A conceptual model of branch growth is proposed where damage and die-back modify the branch diameter-length relationship, severe damage and die-back lead to branch death, and recovery helps to restore the relationship in live branches. The vertical distribution of branch diameters within the crown was analyzed to characterize crown form. An allometric model describing the maximum relationship between branch height and branch diameter was fit to each tree. Two types of distribution patterns were identified: the conical and rounded. The frequency distributions of branch diameters at three crown levels (upper, mid and lower crown) were also used to characterize crown form. Three crown types were characterized: the mature crown, old crown, and stressed crown. These crown types corresponded well with the vertical distribution patterns of maximum branch diameters. The two criteria are suggested as a useful tool for characterizing crown form in old coastal Douglas-fir for purposes of forest management. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Jun. 2000, FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, 131 (1-3), 81 - 91, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • 石井 弘明

    The Ecological Society of Japan, 2000, 日本生態学会誌, 50:65-70 (1), 65 - 70, Japanese

    Scientific journal

  • Height growth and vertical development of an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest in southwestern Washington State, USA

    H Ishii, JH Reynolds, ED Ford, DC Shaw

    A detailed analysis of diameter-height relationships was applied to an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest in southwestern Washington State, U.S.A., to predict future development of vertical stratification among tree species. Differences among species in relative abundance and size structure resulted in diameter-height regressions of varying certainty and stability. Damage and shading had negative impacts on predicted heights and estimates of maximum attainable height (H-max) in all species. However, species varied as to the main causes and size dependency of damage in relation to tree height. Current height-growth rates of the upper canopy species declined with increasing tree height, reaching minimum values near the predicted H-max. The future development of the forest canopy would involve a slow invasion of the upper canopy by Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don, as P. menziesii are near their maximum attainable height, and Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes and Taxus brevifolia Nutt. are restricted to the middle to lower canopy. However, if current height-growth rates continue, P. menziesii should maintain its dominant status in the upper canopy for at least another century.

    NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA, Jan. 2000, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH-REVUE CANADIENNE DE RECHERCHE FORESTIERE, 30 (1), 17 - 24, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Effects of the spatial arrangement of aerial stems and current-year shoots on the demography and growth of Hydrangea hirta in a light-limited environment

    H Ishii, H Takeda

    This study investigates the effects of the spatial arrangement of aerial stems and current-year shoots on patterns of herbivory, competition and on the requirements for mechanical support in Hydrangea hirta Sieb. et Zucc. growing in a light-limited environment. Stem demography was followed for three consecutive growing seasons. Stem mortality rates decreased with increasing stem age. Age-specific mortality rate was highest for new stems owing to the high incidence of herbivory. Mortality due to herbivory was low in older stems and was attributed to the dispersion of the risk of herbivore attack as a result of the increase in number of current-year shoots per stem. Clumping of stems led to intense intra-clonal competition as inferred from size-dependent mortality and density-dependent turnover of stems, and higher maximum stem length in clumps with higher stem density. Analysis of the spatial distribution of current-year shoots within the stem crown revealed a uniform, mono-layered crown architecture. The horizontal distribution of buds within the mono-layer was aggregated as a result of their opposite position, but as current-year shoots grew, their apices became uniformly distributed, resulting in efficient leaf display for light capture and shading out competing stems. However, limits on stem growth were observed in crown expansion, shoot production rate and current-year shoot size. Crown width increased with increasing basal diameter to reach a maximum. Both shoot production rate and current-year shoot size decreased with stem growth and a minimum current-year shoot size was defined. These limits on stem growth were attributed to suppression from intra-clonal competition and to the requirements for mechanical support of the mono-layered crown.

    CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, Jul. 1997, NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 136 (3), 443 - 453, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

  • Tree architecture in Ocotea (Lauracea): do ant- inhabited species differ structurally from non-ant-inhabited species?

    Ishii,H, Ickes, K

    1995, Tropics, 4: 239-245 (2), 239 - 245, English

    [Refereed]

    Scientific journal

MISC

  • アーバンフォレストリーの評価と実践 (特集 都市のグリーンインフラとしての樹木・樹林の活用)

    石井 弘明, 堀田 佳那

    Oct. 2021, 48 (10), 6 - 9, Japanese

  • Recognizing conservation values of large, old trees in a temperate old-growth forest from an ecological context : a case study of a canopy vascular plant community and arboreal soils in Japan

    東, 若菜, 駒田, 夏生, 小川, 裕也, 龍見, 史恵, 中西, 晃, 野口, 結子, 石井, 弘明, 神崎, 護

    老齢天然林を有する京都大学芦生研究林の保存木の一つである樹高38m・胸高直径約355cmのカツラにツリークライミングによってアクセスし,着生する維管束植物群集とその環境特性を調査した。その結果,2017年時点で39種(高木24種, 低木12種, つる植物4種, 草本11種(うち7種がシダ類))が確認され,真性着生植物(obligate epiphytes) が8種(うち5種が希少種),通常地生性を示す偶発的着生植物(accidental epiphytes)が31種(うち1種が希少種)であった。偶発的着生植物にはシカ嗜好性種が多く含まれていた。保存木のカツラの樹形は,地上から約5mまでは大径の単幹で,その上部で複数の大径の幹にわかれた樹形の周辺に厚さ10cm以上堆積した有機物層(厚層林冠土壌)が形成され,最も多くの着生植物種が出現した。そこで,着生植物に対する林冠土壊の窒素可給性について調査した結果, 場所の違い(林冠・地上)よりも土層の違い(有機物暦・鉱質土暦)で規定された。表層から10cmまでの土壊に含まれる無機態窒素量の比較では,厚層林冠土壌は地上土壌(堆積有機物層と鉱質土層)の約半分を有し,硝酸態窒素量は少なかったが,アンモニウム態窒素は同等を有していた。分解作用を担う微生物の群集構造は林冠土壌と地上土壊間で異なっていたものの,微生物群集の機能的冗長性や硝化速度に関わるアンモニア酸化微生物の量が維持されることで,林冠土壊は維管束着生植物に利用可能な窒素を供給していることが示唆された。保存木のカツラの樹冠上部では日平均気温や気温の日格差が大きく,平均層厚が2cmの薄層林冠土壌が生育基盤となっていたが, 着生植物は高い葉の水利用効率によってこのような環境に順応していると考えられた。長きにわたり生存する貴重な生物としての巨樹そのものの生物学的価値に加えて,巨樹の生態学的な役割についても把握し,それらを共に保全していくことが必要である。

    関西自然保護機構, Aug. 2021, 地域自然史と保全 = Bulletin of Kansai Organization for Nature Conservation, 43 (1), 71 - 82, Japanese

  • SAKAKIBARA Akemi, TORIMARU Takeshi, AKADA Shinji, ISHIHARA Masae, ISHII Hiroaki, AZUMA Wakana, TODA Motomu

    日本海側(大山,白山,白神山地)と太平洋側(段戸山,三峰山,鷹ノ巣山)のブナ天然林を対象に,ヨーロッパブナで報告された乾燥関連性遺伝子27遺伝子領域の一塩基多型(以下,SNP)のブナへの適用可能性を試みた。その結果,10遺伝子領域がブナに適用可能であり,このうちSNPの変異性の高い4遺伝子領域を選別した。日本海側と太平洋側の地域間における遺伝的分化は非翻訳領域・同義置換領域で認められたが,非同義置換領域では認められなかった。最も集団サイズが小さく孤立化している鷹ノ巣山集団では,非同義置換をともなうSNPの対立遺伝子頻度が他の集団と異なり,アミノ酸の性質に変化をともなう遺伝的浮動の効果の可能性が示唆された。

    中部森林学会事務局, 30 May 2021, 中部森林研究, 69, 5 - 8, Japanese

    [Refereed]

  • Kawata Naoto, Noguchi Yuiko, Iwasaki Ayako, Doi Suguru, Hotta Kana, Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 24 May 2021, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 132, 439, Japanese

  • Ishii Hiroaki, Horikawa Shin-ichiro, Azuma Wakana, Noguchi Yuiko

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 24 May 2021, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 132, 162, Japanese

  • Yamada Kano, Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki, Kuroda Keiko

    Tree Health Research Society, Japan, 30 Apr. 2020, Tree and Forest Health, 24 (2), 110 - 111, Japanese

  • Contribution of whole-tree water storage to daily transpiration in conifer trees

    Wakana A. Azuma, Sawa Himeno, Koichiro Gyokusen, Hiroaki Ishii, Takeshi Nakajima, Yoshiko Kosugi, Kenji Tsuruta, Mai Kamakura, Kenichi Yoshimura, Makiko Tateishi

    Sep. 2019, AsiaFlux2019 Conference Proceedings, 154 - 154, English

    Introduction international proceedings

  • Yamada Kano, Hara Chinatsu, Noguchi Yuiko, Ishii Hiroaki, Kuroda Keiko

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2019, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 130 (0), 297 - 297, Japanese

  • Hara Chinatsu, Iwasaki Ayako, Osugi Yoshihiro, Ichinose Gaku, Noguchi Yuiko, Ishii Hiroaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2019, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 130 (0), 324 - 324, Japanese

  • Hara Chinatsu, Ishii Hiroaki

    Preventing invasion and expansion of exotic species into urban forests is an important current issue. In Japan, Ligustrum lucidum Ait., an invasive tree, has escaped into urban forests, and could compete with Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., a congenetic native species. Here, we measured intra- and inter-individual variation (plasticity) of leaf functional traits of the two species to compare their acclimation and adaptation potentials to variable light environments. We found no difference between species in intra-individual plasticity of leaf functional traits (leaf mass per area, chl and N contents per leaf area, and maximum photosynthetic rate). For many traits, inter-individual plasticity was greater for L. lucidum. This difference was due to the low plasticity of L. japonicum trees artificially planted in high-light conditions because, for example, the plasticity of photosynthetic rate of L. japonicum in its native light range was similar to that of L. lucidum. Our study suggested that the high photosynthetic capacity of L. lucidum resulting in fast growth in high-light environments such as the forest edge, may contribute to its invasiveness. In addition, L. lucidum exhibits high acclimation potential of leaf functional traits across a wide range of light environments, which could contribute to its invasion and expansion not only at the forest edge, but also the forest interior, where it could potentially compete with L. japonicum.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2019, Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 101 (5), 221 - 226, Japanese

  • 樹高100メートルの世界から

    石井弘明, 東 若菜

    2018, 生物学者、地球をいく(編集 小林真、工藤岳), Japanese

    Introduction commerce magazine

  • Creating healthy urban forests using Green Infrastructure

    新良貴 歩美, 堀田 佳那, 石井 弘明

    雨水貯留浸透技術協会, 2018, 水循環 = Journal of hydrological system : 貯留と浸透, 109, 18 - 22, Japanese

  • Ishii, H. Roaki, Cavaleri, Molly A.

    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Oct. 2017, TREE PHYSIOLOGY, 37 (10), 1263 - 1268, English

    [Refereed]

    Others

  • Horikawa Shinichiro, Ishii Hiroaki, Araraki Ayumi, Myokai Naoaki, Azuma Wakana

    In Fagus crenata, mean leaf size and difference in sun- vs. shade-leaf morphology are both larger for northern populations. Here, we compared within-crown variation in leaf morphology among five populations to elucidate regional differences in phenotypic plasticity and infer genetic and environmental factors that influence it. Morphological plasticity of leaves was more strongly correlated with relative height in the crown (leaf height / tree height) than with canopy openness. We inferred this was because relative height reflected both light environment and water status of leaves. Regional differences in plasticity of leaf area in relation to canopy openness corresponded to genetic lineages of the populations sampled. Whereas, that of leaf thickness and specific leaf area (leaf area / leaf dry mass) in relation to relative height did not correspond to genetic lineages. In all regions, leaf thickness converged to approximately 0.25 mm at relative height≒0.5 and plasticity resulted from leaves becoming thicker/thinner with increasing/decreasing height, respectively. At the tree top, specific leaf area converged to a minimum value of 0.1 m2 g‒1 and regions with greater specific leaf area in the lower crown had greater plasticity. Leaf morphological plasticity was greater in regions that had more extreme climatic conditions, suggesting that it represents adaptive plasticity in response to climatic variation.

    The Society of Applied Forest Science, Aug. 2017, Applied Forest Science, 26 (2), 1 - 7, Japanese

  • Shiraki Ayumi, Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki

    Tree Health Research Society, Japan, 2017, Tree and Forest Health, 21 (1), 22 - 23, Japanese

  • Enoki Tsutomu, Ishii Hiroaki, Kaji Kiyohiro, Cho Keiichiro, Yamauchi Kohei, Shiiba Yasuki, Ogata Taketo, Sasaki Hirokazu, Hishi Takuo, Tashiro Naoaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2017, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 128 (0), 541 - 541, Japanese

  • Horikawa Shinichiro, Myokai Naoaki, Shiraki Ayumi, Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2017, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 128 (0), 390 - 390, Japanese

  • Himeno Sawa, Gyokusen Koichiro, Ishii Hiroaki, Azuma Wakana

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2016, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 127 (0), 310 - 310, Japanese

  • Ishii Hiroaki, Shiraki Ayumi, Azuma Wakana, Kihara Takeo, Kuroda Keiko

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2016, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 127 (0), 316 - 316, Japanese

  • Azuma Wakana, Nakashima Satoru, Yamakita Eri, Ishii Hiroaki, Kuroda Keiko

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2016, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 127 (0), 317 - 317, Japanese

  • 谷川 東子, 山下 尚之, 山下 満, 福島 整, 杉山 暁史, 石井 弘明, 溝口 岳男, 平野 恭弘, 伊藤 嘉昭

    一般社団法人 日本土壌肥料学会, 2016, 日本土壌肥料学会講演要旨集, 62 (0), 13 - 13, Japanese

  • HOTTA Kana, SHIRAKI Ayumi, ISHII Hiroaki

    都市化による水循環の変化は,都市環境問題の要因となっている。これに対しメルボルン市では,都市内の水循環を包括的に管理する Water-Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) の概念に基づいた市街地整備が行われている。その一つに都市緑地を活用した水循環の管理があり,同市の都市緑地の管理手法はオーストラリア全土の管理手法の基盤となっている。本稿では同市における都市緑地管理および雨水を利用した都市緑地潅水システムの開発について紹介する。オーストラリア南部ビクトリア州では, 2006年から 2010年の干ばつにより,都市緑地も大きな被害を受けた。この経験を踏まえ同市は健全で高い多様性を保持する都市緑地を創造することを目指している。そのため市内全域で公有緑地の現状把握を行い,都市緑地の将来の状況を予測,モデリングするための取り組みやツールを確立した。また市街地の緑地では,流出雨水を利用した統合的潅水システムを導入した。これにより,洪水のリスク緩和と都市緑地への十分な潅水が期待されている。同市における WSUDの取り組みは,環境に配慮した都市緑地管理に関する示唆に富んでいる。

    JAPANESE SOCIETY OF REVEGETATION TECHNOLOGY, 2016, Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology, 42 (3), 455 - 459, Japanese

  • ミズナラとプナの林冠木における道管形成および個葉光合成の季節変化とシンクソースバランス

    鍋嶋絵里, 工藤佳代, 東若菜, 石井弘明, 船田良

    26 Mar. 2015, 日本森林学会大会学術講演集, 126th, 208, Japanese

  • Hotta Kana, Sumida Satsuki, Ishii Hiroaki, Kuroda Keiko

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2015, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 126 (0), 296 - 296, Japanese

  • Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2015, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 126 (0), 360 - 360, Japanese

  • Nabeshima Eri, Kudo Kayo, Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki, Funada Ryo

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2015, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 126 (0), 79 - 79, Japanese

  • Matsushita Michinari, Hoshizaki Kazuhiko, Inoue Mizuki, Ishikawa Yuichi, Ishii Hiroaki, Hotta kana, Takata Katsuhiko, Makita Akifumi

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2015, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 126 (0), 98 - 98, Japanese

  • HOTTA Kana, ISHII Hiroaki, KURODA Keiko

    アーバンフォレストリーは,都市緑地および周辺の天然林を連続した生態系として持続的に管理する都市型森林管理である。本稿では, 2013~14年に行われたアーバンフォレストリーに関する 2つの国際学会に共通するテーマである都市緑地における生物多様性について,欧米の動向を紹介する。都市緑地において多様な樹種を植栽することは,生物多様性の創出だけでなく,伝染病や害虫被害のリスクを分散・低下させ,都市林の安定的な維持管理につながる。植栽樹種を選定する際は,種の由来(外来種・在来種) だけでなく,多様性や病害虫への抵抗性,持続可能性などといった,実用性で判断するのが現実的である。日本においても,都市緑地とかつての里山を含む都市近郊林を有機的に統合し,持続的に管理していくことによって,天然林や植栽林など,様々な由来の緑地を含む日本型アーバンフォレストが創生され,豊かな地域生態系が実現すると考えられる。

    JAPANESE SOCIETY OF REVEGETATION TECHNOLOGY, 2015, Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology, 40 (3), 505 - 507, Japanese

    Introduction scientific journal

  • Climbing and Researching the Tallest Trees in Japan.

    Azuma Wakana, Ishii H. Roaki

    2014, What’s Up? The Newsletter of the International Canopy Network, English

    Introduction scientific journal

  • Azuma Wakana, Ishii Hiroaki

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2014, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 125 (0), 323 - 323, Japanese

  • Saito Dai, Shirota Tetsuoh, Maruyama Kazuki, Yasue Koh, Ishii Hiroaki, Okano Tetsuo

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2014, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 125 (0), 351 - 351, Japanese

  • Ishii Hiroaki, Minamino Takuya, Hotta Kana, Azuma Wakana, Takashima Atsushi, Yoshida Shigejirou

    [in Japanese]

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2014, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 125 (0), 587 - 587, Japanese

  • 竹崎 大悟, 石井 弘明, 南野 拓也, 百原 新, 沖津 進

    日本蘚苔類学会, 2013, 蘚苔類研究, 10 (12), 430 - 430, Japanese

  • Ehara Hidekazu, Ishii Hiroaki, Maeto Kaoru

    To elucidate the effects of understory vegetation on arthropod diversity after line thinning, we investigated changes in ant community structure after experimental removal of understory vegetation in a line-thinned stand and an adjacent control stand. There was no difference in the number of ant species found in the two stands. The ant community structure of the line-thinned stand was characterized by habitat generalists, whereas that of the control stand was characterized by woodland specialists. Understory removal affected differently the community structure of the two stands. In the line-thinned stand, the effect may be small because the community was characterized by species with high environmental adaptability, whereas in the control stand, the community, which is characterized by species adapted to closed canopy environments, may be more sensitive to disturbances. Although the effect of understory removal on ant community structure was small compared to that of stand thinning, maintaining a diverse understory following canopy closure after intense thinning may increase ant species diversity by allowing habitat generalists and woodland specialists to coexist.

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2013, Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 95 (2), 95 - 100, Japanese

  • Kato Akira, Ishii Hiroaki, Umeki Kiyoshi, Osawa Akira, Yoshida Toshiya, Kobayashi Tatsuaki

    レーザーリモートセンシング技術の発展により、これまで不可能であった樹木構造把握が可能となってきた。本研究では地上レーザーを用いて詳細に樹木構造データを取得し、3次元点群データから樹木の幹枝を分類し、各構造を測定した。樹木構造の把握は、コンピュータグラフィックの技術を用いて、レーザー点群に対し内挿する表面を作成した。地上レーザー計測を北海道から滋賀まで様々な樹種を対象に行い、得られたデータを解析し、現地調査したデータと比較した。現地調査は伐倒やロープ登攀によって取得した。研究結果は、胸高直径はどの樹種に対しても3cm以内の誤差で測定可能であり、樹高は地上からのレーザー照射にも関わらず、50cm以内の誤差で測定できた。地上レーザーは航空機レーザーによるデータ取得と視点が異なるため、今後効率の良いサンプル手法が必要である。また枝葉構造の把握も可能であるが、レーザー照射可能距離がセンサーによって異なることから、樹木測定に有効な照射範囲を今後考慮する必要があることがわかった。

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2013, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 124 (0), 349 - 349, Japanese

  • Shirota Tetsuoh, Ogino Hiroyuki, Okano Tetsuo, Ishii Hiroaki, Yasue Koh, Maruyama Kazuki, Kitahara Kazuki, Morimoto Takahiro, Naruse Eiju, Kawamura Nana, Azuma Wakana

    60年生ヒノキ人工林に対して行われた強度間伐の影響を,15年後の75年生時に評価した。強度間伐によって低木層から亜高木層が発達したが,そのことにより林床の植生は衰退した。下層植生(亜高木,低木,林床)は現存量で5%を,NPPで18%を占めており,炭素固定機能に大きな貢献をしていると考えられた。下層植生の純一次生産の大半は葉リターに分配されており,土壌への炭素供給が加速化されていることが示唆された。一方で,低木層に発達した64種のうち種子散布を行っているのは11種に過ぎず,現段階では,植物の種多様性が持続されるフェーズにはいたっていないと考えられた。

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2013, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 124 (0), 500 - 500, Japanese

  • 樹木医・研究と実践の現場から(27)老大木の生理生態学

    石井 弘明

    日本緑化センタ-, Mar. 2011, グリ-ン・エ-ジ, 38 (3), 38 - 42, Japanese

  • Ishii Hiroaki, Azuma Wakana, Inufusa Naoki, Ogino Hiroyuki

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2011, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 123 (0), L12 - L12, Japanese

  • Toward quantitative and objective ecosystem management

    ISHII H.

    The Ecological Society of Japan, 31 Mar. 2010, Japanese Journal of Ecology, 60 (1), 41 - 42, Japanese

  • Physiological and morphological plasticity of fine root system and shoot in response to changes in soil nutrient status

    Makita Naoki, Sugimoto Takanobu, Hirano Yasuhiro, Tanikawa Toko, Mizoguchi Takeo, Ishii Hiroaki

    THE JAPANESE FORESTRY SOCIETY, 2010, The Japanese Forest Society Congress, 121 (0), 344 - 344, Japanese

  • 樹木細根呼吸量を規定しているものは何なのか? : ヒノキ林における細根形態特性および土壌栄養条件から考える

    牧田 直樹, 平野 恭弘, 溝口 岳男, 小南 裕志, 石井 弘明

    26 Jun. 2009, 根の研究 = Root research, 18 (2), 76 - 76, Japanese

  • 針葉樹の樹形と生理機能の相互作用:シュート光合成の順化反応におけるシュート三次元構造と生理特性の相互寄与率

    石井弘明, 吉村謙一, 藤崎泰治, 北岡哲, 小池孝良, 丸山温

    2006, 日本生態学会大会講演要旨集, 53rd

  • カムチャツカ半島中央低地帯におけるハイマツ(Pinus pumila)のニッチと環境可塑性

    奥田 将己, 原 登志彦, 隅田 明洋, 本間 航介, 石井 弘明, Vetrova V, Vyatkina M

    日本生態学会, 2003, 日本生態学会大会講演要旨集, 50 (0), 296 - 296, Japanese

  • 林床チシマザサの除去がダケカンバ林冠葉のフェノロジーを変える 土壌条件の変化と個葉~シュートレベルでの光合成生産

    小林剛, 石井弘明, 田畑あずさ, 原登志彦, 植村滋, 高橋耕一, 半場祐子, 中谷暢丈, 及川真平

    2002, 日本生態学会大会講演要旨集, 49th

Books etc

  • 木本植物の生理生態

    石井弘明

    Joint work, 高木の水輸送, 共立出版, Apr. 2020

  • Forest Ecology

    ISHII HIROAKI

    Joint editor, 朝倉書店, Apr. 2019, Japanese, ISBN: 9784254470543

    Scholarly book

  • エコシステムマネージメント-包括的な生態系の保全と管理へ-

    森 章, ISHII HIROAKI

    Joint work, 共立出版, 2013, Japanese

    Scholarly book

  • Size and age-related changes in tree structure and function

    Ishii, H

    Joint work, Springer, Oct. 2011, English

    Scholarly book

  • Forest Ecology

    Ishii, Hiroaki

    Joint work, Kyoritsu Shuppan, Nov. 2010, Japanese

    Scholarly book

  • Age-related developmnet of canopy structure in temperate forest ecosystems. (pp.102-117. In:Forest Canopies.M.D.Lowman and H.B. Rinker, eds.

    ISHII Hiroaki, VANPELT R, PARKER G G

    Joint work, Elsevier Academic Press., 2004, English

    Scholarly book

Presentations

  • 自然林再生を目的とした緑化地における40年間の植生動態.

    吉岡鷹彦, 堀田佳那, 川田直人, 岸本 弦, 野口結子, 石井弘明

    日本緑化工学52回大会, Sep. 2021, Japanese

    Poster presentation

  • Spatial and temporal variation of species composition and > structure of unmanaged secondary forest (abandoned *satoyama*) adjacent to > late-successional forest

    Naoto Kawata, Takahiko Yoshioka, Yuiko Noguchi, Wakana Aoi Azuma, H. Roaki Ishii

    The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Forests, Sep. 2021, English

    Poster presentation

  • Preditcing succession of unmanaged secondary forest from spatio-temporal variation of stand structure relative to the adjacent late-successional forest

    Naoto Kawata, Hiroaki Ishii, Wakana Azuma, Yuiko Noguchi, Takahiko Yoshioka

    9th EAFES International Congress, 10 Jul. 2021, English

    Poster presentation

  • SSRマーカーとSCoTマーカーを用いたブナ集団の地理的な遺伝的変異パターンの比較

    榊原朱望, 鳥丸猛, 石原正恵, 石井弘明, 東若菜, 戸田求

    中部森林学会, Dec. 2020

  • Variation of intra-crown leaf plasticity of Fagus crenata across its geographical range in Japan

    Hiroaki Ishii

    第131回日本森林学会大会, 27 Mar. 2020, Japanese

    Oral presentation

  • Acclimation and tolerance of urban trees to high temperatures

    Chinatsu Hara, Sumihiro Inoue, Hiroaki Ishii

    67th Ecological Society of Japan Meeting, 08 Mar. 2020, Japanese

    Poster presentation

  • 都市林における常緑広葉樹種の葉の光合成形質の可塑性

    HARA CHINATSU, ISHII HIROAKI

    66th Ecological Society of Japan, Mar. 2019, Japanese, Kobe, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 都市林における外来種トウネズミモチと在来樹種との競合の可能性

    HARA CHINATSU, ISHII HIROAKI

    第130回日本森林学会, Mar. 2019, Japanese, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • クスノキ老大木の通水構造(2) 老木と成木の通水構造の比較

    NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI

    66th Ecological Society of Japan, Mar. 2019, Japanese, Kobe, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • クスノキの排水した道管への再注水に対する柔細胞類の寄与

    YAMADA KANO, HARA CHINATSU, NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    第69回木材学会大会, Mar. 2019, Japanese, 日本木材学会, 函館, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • クスノキの排水した道管への再注水に対する柔細胞類の寄与

    YAMADA KANO, HARA CHINATSU, NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    第130回森林学会大会, Mar. 2019, Japanese, 日本森林学会, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Structure and function of forest canopies: from world-record trees to plantations

    ISHII HIROAKI

    66th Ecological Society of Japan, Mar. 2019, English, Kobe, Domestic conference

    Public symposium

  • Height-related variations of leaf traits reflect strategies for maintaining photosynthetic and hydraulic homeostasis in tall Pinus densiflora trees

    AZUMA(AOI) WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    66th Ecological Society of Japan, Mar. 2019, English, Kobe, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 都市緑化におけるトウネズミモチとネズミモチの競合の可能性

    HARA CHINATSU, ISHII HIROAKI

    第23回樹木医学会, Oct. 2018, Japanese, FUKUOKA, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 侵入性外来樹木トウネズミモチの生理特性に関する研究

    HARA CHINATSU, NAMBA YOUKI, NAKAGAKI MASAYA, YAMADA KANO, ISHII HIROAKI

    第49回日本緑化工学会, Sep. 2018, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 屋上緑化現場での強風に対する生理・形態的応答樹種間比較

    NAMBA YOUKI, INOUESUMIHIRO, NAKAGAKI MASAYA, YAMADA KANO, ISHII HIROAKI

    第49回日本緑化工学会, Sep. 2018, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Large Cryptomeria trees retained after intensive logging functioned as refugia for canopy woody plants in Yakushima

    ISHII HIROAKI, MINAMINO TAKUYA, AZUMA WAKANA, HOTTA KANA, NAMBA YOUKI, NOGUCHI YUIKO

    8th International Congress of the East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies, Apr. 2018, English, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Height-related changes in hydraulic structure of old Cinnamomum camphora: trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and safety

    NOGUCHI YUIKO, HORIKAWA SHINICHIRO, HARACHINATSU, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    8th International Congress of the East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies, Apr. 2018, English, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Canopy vascular plant community and arboreal soil characteristics on a large, long-lived Cercidiphyllum japonicum tree in a temperate forest

    AZUMA WAKANA, NAKANISHI AKIRA, KOMADA N, IWAOKA C, OGAWA Y, NISHIDA K, NOGUCHI YUIKO, KANZAKI MAMORU, ISHII HIROAKI

    8th International Congress of the East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies, Apr. 2018, English, NAGOYA, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 都市環境における風に対する樹木の生理・形態的応答

    NAMBA YUUKI, INOUE SUMIHIRO, SHIRAKI AYUMI, NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI

    第65回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2018, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 芦生研究林内保存木の保全生態学的研究-着生植物群集と林冠土壌-

    AZUMA WAKANA, NAKANISHI AKIRA, KOMADA NATSUO, IWAOKA FUMIE, OGAWA YUYA, NISHIDA KEISUKE, NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI, KANZAKI MAMORU

    第65回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2018, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • クスノキ老大木の通水構造:高さにともなう通水性と安全性のトレードオフ

    NOGUCHI YUIKO, NAMBA YUUKI, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    第65回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2018, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Seasonal changes of leaf photosynthetic rate, stored starch and vessel formation in shoots and tree stems of two deciduous broad-leaved tree species

    NABESHIMA ERI, KUDO K, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI, FUNADA RYO

    9thPacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference, Sep. 2017, English, Bali, Indonesia, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Phenotypic plasticity of Fagus crenata: implications for persistence under climate change

    HORIKAWA SHINICHIRO, MYOKAI NAOAKI, ISHII HIROAKI

    26th IUFRO Conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems, Sep. 2017, English, Tokyo, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Anatomy and hypothetical experiments to demonstrate the role of parenchyma and tracheids to keep water conduction in Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl.

    NOGUCHI YUIKO, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    9th Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference, Sep. 2017, English, Bali, Indonesia, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 気候条件からみたブナの葉の表現型可塑性

    HORIKAWA SHINICHIRO, MYOKAI NAOAKI, SHIRAKI AYUMI, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    第128回日本森林学会, Mar. 2017, Japanese, 鹿児島大学, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • ブナの表現型可塑性とその地域変異

    HORIKAWA SHINICHIRO, ISHII HIROAKI, MYOKAI NAOAKI, AZUMA WAKANA, SHIRAKI AYUMI

    第64回日本生態学会, Mar. 2017, Japanese, 早稲田大学, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • マツ枯れ・ナラ枯れ後の里山二次林における維持管理手法の検討

    KITAGAWA KOHEI, HOTTA KANA, KIHARA Takeo, SHIRAKI AYUMI, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    樹木医学会21回大会, Nov. 2016, Japanese, 樹木医学会, 神戸市, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • ブナの葉における形態的可塑性の地域間差

    HORIKAWA SHINICHIRO, MYOKAI NAOAKI, SHIRAKI AYUMI, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    第67回応用森林学会, Nov. 2016, Japanese, 愛媛大学, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • コノテガシワ園芸品種における葉枯れは水ストレスが関与している?

    SHIRAKI AYUMI, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    第21回樹木医学会, Nov. 2016, Japanese, 神戸大学, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Sustainable management of "Satoyama" secondary forest after the extensive damages by pine wilt in the western Japan

    KITAGAWA KOHEI, HOTTA KANA, KIHARA Takeo, SHIRAKI AYUMI, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    The 9th International Symposium of Pine Wilt Disease, Aug. 2016, English, IUFRO, 韓国、ソウル市, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 放置里山林における森林再生を考慮した資源利用の検討

    KITAGAWA KOHEI, HOTTA KANA, SHIRAKI AYUMI, KIHARA TAKEO, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    第63回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2016, Japanese, 仙台, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 顕微赤外分光法による高木のスギ針葉の水分保持メカニズムの解明

    AZUMA WAKANA, NAKASHIMA SATORU, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    第127回日本森林学会大会, Mar. 2016, Japanese, 藤沢, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • ヒノキ樹冠部における鱗状葉の通水性維持-transfusion tissueの役割

    SHIRAKI AYUMI, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI, 黒田 慶子

    第63回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2016, Japanese, 仙台, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 100年生ヒノキ鱗状葉の通水性維持機構

    ISHII HIROAKI, SHIRAKI AYUMI, AZUMA WAKANA, KURODA KEIKO

    第127回日本森林学会大会, Mar. 2016, Japanese, 藤沢, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Visualizing and evaluating secondary forest restoration success using Bray-Curtis ordination: case studies from Japan

    HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    2nd International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity, Feb. 2016, English, Melbourne, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Vegetation recovery after removal of invasive Trachycarpus fortunei in a fragmented urban shrine forest

    ICHINOSE GAKU, ISHII HIROAKI

    2nd International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity, Feb. 2016, English, Melbourne, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Leaf withering in ornamental cultivars of Thuja orientalis may be caused by water stress

    SHIRAKI AYUMI, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    2nd International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity. 2016.2 (Melbourne)., Feb. 2016, English, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • ヒノキ鱗状葉の形態と生理機能に関する研究

    新良貴 歩美, 東 若菜, ISHII HIROAKI

    第66回応用森林学会, Oct. 2015, Japanese, 岡山, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 施工後35年が経過した緑化地における木本群落回復の定量的評価

    HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI, AZUMA WAKANA, SASAKI TAKESHI

    第45回日本緑化工学会大会, Sep. 2015, Japanese, 藤沢, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 天然林‐人工林エコトーンにおける植生変化

    土居 優, 松川 尚平, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KEIKO

    第62回日本生態学会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 鹿児島, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 天然性二次林の群落構造は再現できるのか?-定量的評価法の開発―

    HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    第126回日本森林学会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 天然性二次林の群落構造は再現できるのか? ―定量的評価法の開発―

    HOTTA Kana, SUMIDA Satsuki, ISHII Hiroaki, KURODA Keiko

    126回日本森林学会大会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 日本森林学会, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 西宮神社社叢林における侵入種除去後の植生回復

    ICHINOSE GAKU, IWASAKI AYAKO, OHSUGI YOSHIHIRO, ISHII HIROAKI

    第62回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 日本生態学会, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 照葉樹高木の葉の形態・生理特性:個体内・個体間における可塑性の違い

    NAKATANI MISAKO, ISHII HIROAKI

    第62回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 鹿児島, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 樹齢300年前後の天然秋田スギの肥大成長特性: 個体特性とサイズ、競争および環境効果の統合的モデリング

    MATSUSHITA MICHIYA, HOSHIZAKI KAZUHIKO, INOUE MIZUKI, ISHIKAWA YUICHI, ISHII HIROAKI, HOTTA KANA, TAKADA KAZUHIKO, MAKITA AKIFUMI

    第126回日本森林学会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 樹上の世界に魅せられて-針葉樹の高木・老木における生理生態学的研究

    AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI, KURODA KATSUFUMI, KURODA KEIKO, NAKASHIMA SATORU

    第62回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 鹿児島, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 自然回復緑化における群落再生の評価方法

    HOTTA KANA, SUMIDA SATSUKI, ISHII Hiroaki, KURODA KEIKO

    第62回日本生態学会大会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 鹿児島, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 最大樹高に達した異樹齢アカマツにおける葉の生理特性の比較

    AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    第126回日本森林学会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • ミズナラとブナの林冠木における道管形成および個葉光合成の季節変化とシンクソースバランス

    NABESHIMA ERI, KUDO KAYO, AZUMA WAKANA, ISHII HIROAKI, FUNADA RYO

    第126回日本森林学会, Mar. 2015, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • Vegetation recovery after removal of invasive Trachycarpus fortunei in an urban shrine forest in Japan

    ICHINOSE Gaku, IWASAKI Ayako, OHSUGI Yoshihiro, ISHII Hiroaki

    URBIO 2014 International Network on Urban Biodiversity and Design Conference, Oct. 2014, English, International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Incheon, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Japanese oak wilt and grazing damage by shika deer are threatening the health of secondary forests, "satoyama"

    KURODA Keiko, ISHII Hiroaki, SASAKI Takeshi, HOTTA Kana, MATSUKAWA Shohei

    URBIO 2014 International Network on Urban Biodiversity and Design Conference, Oct. 2014, English, International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Incheon, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 造成後約40年経過した大阪万博記念公園樹林地の林分構造

    SASAKI Takeshi, CHIHARA Hiroshi, IIZUKA Takayuki, ISHII Hiroaki, DOI Suguru, Niwa Hideyuki, MORIMOTO Yukihiro

    第25回日本緑化工学会大会, Sep. 2014, Japanese, 日本緑化工学会, 帯広, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 西宮神社社叢林における5年間の植生構造の変遷

    ICHINOSE Gaku, IWASAKI Ayako, OHSUGI Yoshihiro, ISHII Hiroaki

    第24回日本景観生態学会大会, Jun. 2014, Japanese, 景観生態学会, 金沢, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Pursuing a moving target: restoration of natural secondary forests in urban Japan

    HOTTA Kana, ISHII Hiroaki

    International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity, Jun. 2014, English, ISA, Alnarp, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Ovipositing preferences of Japanese gypsy moth in a suburban secondary forest in western Japan

    ISHII Hiroaki, SASAKI Takeshi, JIKUMARU Shota, AZUMA Wakana, KURODA Keik

    International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity, Jun. 2014, English, International Society for Arboriculture, Alnarp, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Does adjacent late-successional forest prevent plagiosere of fragmented and abandoned secondary forest in sub-urban Japan?

    AZUMA Wakana, IWASAKI Ayako, OHSUGI Yoshihiro, ISHII Hiroaki

    International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity, Jun. 2014, English, ISA, Alnarp, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Moving Target-遷移する目標林と自然回復緑化

    HOTTA Kana, ISHII Hiroaki, KURODA Keiko

    日本生態学会近畿地区会, Apr. 2014, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 大阪, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 照葉樹の葉の光順化における可塑性の比較,第61回日本生態学会大会

    NAKATANI MISAKO, MINAMINO TAKUYA, HOTTA KANA, ISHII HIROAKI

    日本生態学会, Mar. 2014, Japanese, 広島, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 自然林再生を目的とした緑化地における植生遷移

    HOTTA Kana, AZUMA Wakana, MINAMINO Takuya, ISHII Hiroaki, KURODA Keiko

    第61回日本生態学会大会,PA2-175, Mar. 2014, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 広島, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Transfusion tissueは樹高50m秋田スギ針葉内の貯水に寄与するのか

    AZUMA Wakana, ISHII Hiroaki, KURODA Keiko

    第64回日本木材学会大会, Mar. 2014, Japanese, 日本木材学会, 松山, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 神戸層群における天然林再生を目的とした法面緑化:10年後の経過報告

    堀田佳那, 黒田慶子, Ishii, H

    日本緑化工学会23回大会, 2013, Japanese, 鳥取, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 植栽後10 年が経過した自然林再生緑化地の景観評価

    堀田佳那, 黒田慶子, Ishii, H

    日本景観生態学会23回大会, 2013, Japanese, 盛岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 高木の樹冠における水ストレスと葉の水分生理特性:樹高100mのセコイアメスギにみられる調節メカニズム

    東若菜, Ishii, H, Sillett, S.C

    第59回日本生態学会, 2013, Japanese, 静岡, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 屋久杉に着生する蘚苔類の分布と生態的特徴

    竹﨑大悟, Ishii, H, 百原新, 沖津進

    日本蘚苔類学会第42回大会, 2013, Japanese, 岡山, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • ヤクスギ老齢木に着生する木本植物群落

    南野拓也, Ishii, H, 高島敦司, 吉田茂二郎

    第18回日本植生学会, 2013, Japanese, 仙台, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • ヒノキの非同化器官表面積のスケーリング

    城田徹央, Ishii, H, 岡野哲郎

    第77回日本植物学会大会, 2013, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • セコイアメスギの葉には、高さにともなう水ストレスの影響を緩和する機能があるか?

    東若菜, 黒田慶子, Ishii, H, Sillett, S.C

    第63回日本木材学会, 2013, Japanese, 盛岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 森林の三次元構造計測:技術と応用

    Ishii, H, 東若菜, 犬房直樹, 荻野宏之

    123回日本森林学会大会, 2012, Japanese, 宇都宮, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 強度剪定後の緑化樹木の回復過程の研究.第2回ELR合同大会

    岡谷大亮, 梶井千永, Ishii, H

    第2回ELR合同大会, 2012, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 屋久杉に着生する蘚苔類の垂直分布

    竹﨑大悟, Ishii, H, 南野拓也, 犬房直樹, 沖津進

    植生学会第17回大会, 2012, Japanese, 千葉, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • レーザー測量によるヒノキ人工林のバイオマス推定

    城田徹央, 北原和樹, Ishii, H, 安江恒, 岡野哲郎

    123回日本森林学会大会, 2012, Japanese, 宇都宮, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • Succulent tree-top leaves of tall Sequoia sempervirens store water

    Azuma, W, Ishii, H, Sillett, S.C

    5th East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies International Congres, 2012, English, Ohtsu, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Does within-canopy plasticity increase stand productivity?

    Ishii, H, Azuma, W, Sillett, S.C

    5th East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies International Congres, 2012, English, Ohtsu, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 林冠の三次元構造と多様性・生産性の関係

    Ishii, H

    第122回日本森林学会大会, 2011, Japanese, 静岡, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 壮齢人工林の3次元構造と一次生産

    城田徹央, Ishii, H, 安江恒, 岡野哲郎

    第122回日本森林学会大会, 2011, Japanese, 静岡, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 常緑広葉樹林に隣接する里山放棄林の植生動態

    東若菜, 岩崎絢子, Ishii, H

    日本景観生態学会第21回大会, 2011, Japanese, 千葉, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 樹上100mの水ストレス?セコイアメスギの葉の水分生理特性

    東若菜, Ishii, H, Sillett, S.C

    日本生態学会近畿地区会2011年度第2回例会, 2011, Japanese, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 異なる年次および立地におけるスギクローンの光合成特性

    平岡裕一郎, Ishii, H, 松永孝治, 藤澤義武

    第122回日本森林学会大会, 2011, Japanese, 静岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • スギ列状間伐林における環境要因が及ぼすアリ群集構造の変異

    江原秀宗, Ishii, H, 前藤薫

    第122回日本森林学会大会, 2011, Japanese, 静岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • クスノキ挿木苗の生理・形態特性 : 実生苗との比較

    東若菜, 仲尾公平, 橋本光司, Ishii, H

    第42回日本緑化工学会大会, 2011, Japanese, 千葉, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • スギ人工林における列状間伐後のアリ種組成の変化

    江原 秀宗, ISHII HIROAKI, MAETO KAORU

    日本昆虫学会近畿支部2010年度大会, Dec. 2010, Japanese, 兵庫県立人と自然の博物館、三田市, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 不成績造林地における地上部生産量の地形と植栽木の影響

    榎木勉, 井上貴文, 田代直明, Ishii, H

    121回日本森林学会大会, 2010, Japanese, つくば, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 屋久島針広混交林の階層構造

    Ishii, H, 牧田直樹, 高島敦司, 吉田茂二郎

    第57回日本生態学会大会, 2010, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 異質土壌環境下におけるヒノキの細根およびシュートの形態的・生理的可塑性

    牧田直樹, 杉元貴信, 平野恭弘, 谷川東子, 溝口岳男, Ishii, H

    121回日本森林学会大会, 2010, Japanese, つくば, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 常緑広葉樹におけるシュート構造と通導機能

    吉村謙一, Ishii, H, 池田武文

    第56回日本生態学会大会, 2009, Japanese, 盛岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 孤立林におけるネズミモチ・トウネズミモチの競合:異なる光環境に対する順化反応

    Ishii, H, 大杉祥広

    第56回日本生態学会大会, 2009, Japanese, 盛岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 90年生ヒノキ人工林における枝・葉現存量の推定

    Ishii, H, 杉元貴信, 千葉幸弘, 金澤洋一

    第120回日本森林学会大会, 2009, Japanese, 京都, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 兵庫県西宮神社社叢の植生管理-林内移植樹の明・暗順化反応-

    Ishii, H, 大杉 祥広

    第55回日本生態学会大会, 2008, Japanese, 福岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 個葉の暗順化と個体の暗順化―異なる被陰方法に対する光合成能力の変化-

    吉村 謙一, Ishii, H, 深山 浩

    第55回日本生態学会大会, 2008, Japanese, 福岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • ヒノキ高齢林における間伐と林分構造の関係

    Ishii, H, 杉元 貴信, 鈴木 大智, 辻 貴文, 金澤 洋一

    第119回日本森林学会大会, 2008, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • The importance of line thinning to arthropod conservation and ecosystem management in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations

    Maleque, M.A, Maeto, K, Ishii, H, Taniguchi, S

    XXIII International Congress of Entomology, 2008, English, Durban, South Africa, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • 北米冷温帯針葉樹林の下層におけるツガとモミの共存機構-光獲得と光合成の視点から

    Ishii, H, 吉村謙一, Ford, E.D

    日本生態学会53回大会, 2007, Japanese, 松山, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 分枝と枝通導性の関係

    吉村謙一, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会53回大会, 2007, Japanese, 松山, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 京都府南部落葉広葉樹二次林におけるコバノミツバツツジとモチツツジの樹形とフェノロジ―

    浅野祥子, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会53回大会, 2007, Japanese, 松山, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 温帯林における林冠構造、生産性、生物多様性の相互作用温帯林

    Ishii, H

    第118回日本森林学会大会, 2007, Japanese, 福岡, Domestic conference

    [Invited]

    Invited oral presentation

  • 無間伐高齢ヒノキ林における斜面位置が個体間競争に及ぼす影響

    辻 貴文, 石井 弘明, 金澤 洋一

    第117回日本森林学会大会, Mar. 2006, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 無間伐高齢ヒノキ林における斜面位置が個体感競争に及ぼす影響

    辻貴文, Ishii, H, 金澤洋一

    第117回日本森林学会大会, 2006, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 低木樹種コバノミツバツツジ(Rhododendron reticulatum)における樹冠の発達と分枝構造

    吉村謙一, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会52回大会, 2006, Japanese, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 針葉樹の樹形と生理機能の相互作用:シュート光合成の順化反応におけるシュート三次元構造と生理特性の相互寄与率

    Ishii, H, 吉村謙一, 藤崎泰治, 北岡哲, 小池孝良, 丸山温

    日本生態学会52回大会, 2006, Japanese, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 侵入種除去による孤立社寺林の植生維持・管理方法の提唱

    岩崎絢子, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会52回大会, 2006, Japanese, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 社寺林における林縁効果と侵入種問題:保全・管理への積極的な取り組み

    岩崎絢子, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会52回大会, 2006, Japanese, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 孤立社寺林における20 年間の林分構造の変化

    武野真也, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会52回大会, 2006, Japanese, 新潟, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • The importance of line thinning toward ecosystem management in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations, centeral Japan

    Maleque, M.A, Ishii, H, Maeto, K, Taniguchi, S

    International Conference on Ecological Restoration in East Asia, 2006, English, Osaka, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Edge effects, invasive species and ecological restoration in fragmented shrine forests in southern Hyogo Prefecture, Japan

    Iwasaki, A, Ishii, H

    International Conference on Ecological Restoration in East Asia, 2006, English, Osaka, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • 長伐期を目指して非営利的に管理された高齢ヒノキ林の林分構造-比叡山延暦寺が管理する90年生ヒノキ林の場合

    鈴木 大智, 石井 弘明, 千葉 幸弘, 金澤 洋一

    第116回日本森林学会大会, Mar. 2005, Japanese, 日本森林学会, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 光環境に応じたコバノミツバツツジのモジュール構造の形態的変異

    吉村 謙一, 石井 弘明

    日本生態学会52回大会, Mar. 2005, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 大阪, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 長伐期を目指して非営利的に管理された高齢ヒノキ林の林分構造- 比叡山延暦寺が管理する90年生ヒノキ林の場合

    鈴木大智, Ishii, H, 千葉幸弘, 金澤洋一

    第116回日本森林学会大会, 2005, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 光環境に応じたコバノミツバツツジのモジュール構造の形態的変異

    吉村謙一, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会52回大会, 2005, Japanese, 大阪, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • What happens after maximum crown size is reached? -Adaptive reiteration as a mechanism for crown maintenance

    Ishii, H

    4th International Canopy Conference, 2005, English, Leipzig, Germany, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Vertical change in shoot morphology within a 100m-tall Sequoia sepmervirens crown

    Ishii, H, Sillett, S.C

    2nd East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies International Congres, 2005, English, Osaka, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Reiteration from epicormic buds maintains crown productivity in old-growth Douglas-fir trees

    Ishii, H, Kadotani, T, Ford, E.D, Shaw, D.C

    78th Annual Meeting of the Northwest Scientific Association, 2005, English, Corvallus, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Differentiation of modular autonomy and correlation in the development of crown architecture of Rhododendron reticulatum

    Yoshimura, K, Ishii, H

    78th Annual Meeting of the Northwest Scientific Association, 2005, English, Corvallus, USA, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Biomass and decomposition of dead branches in the canopy of 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees

    Kadotani, T, Ishii, H

    78th Annual Meeting of the Northwest Scientific Association, 2005, English, Corvallus, USA, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • A. Cross-cultural comparison on the relationship of environmental awareness and environmentally-friendly behavior

    Kobayashi, C, Ishii, H, Kajiwara, A

    28th International Congress of Psychology, 2005, English, Bejiing, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • 里山広葉樹二次林におけるコバノミツバツツジの萌芽による個体群動態

    Ishii, H, 相村英則

    日本生態学会50回大会, 2004, Japanese, 筑波, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 里山広葉樹二次林におけるコバノミツバツツジの樹冠の三次元解析

    吉村 謙一, 石井 弘明

    日本生態学会51回大会, 2004, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 釧路, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 北米温帯針葉樹林における樹上の枯死枝の現存量と分解過程

    石井 弘明, 角谷 友子

    日本生態学会51回大会, 2004, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 未記入, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 北米温帯針葉樹林におかる樹上の枯死枝の現存量と分解過程

    Ishii, H, 角谷友子

    日本生態学会51回大会, 2004, Japanese, 釧路, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 北海道北部のダケカンバ林に対する林床チシマザサ除去の影響 -林冠構造,林内光環境そして林冠木の動態

    加藤京子, 小林剛, 西村誠一, 植村滋, 高橋耕一, Ishii, H, 小野清美, 隅田明洋, 原登志彦

    第115回日本森林学会大会, 2004, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 北海道北部のダケカンバ林に対する林床チシマザサ除去の影響

    小林 剛, 加藤京子, 植村滋, 小野清美, Ishii, H, 三木直子, 隅田明洋, 原 登志彦

    第115回日本森林学会大会, 2004, Japanese, 東京, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 兵庫県南部の孤立社寺林における林縁効果の季節変化.ポスター発表

    岩崎絢子, Ishii, H

    日本生態学会51回大会, 2004, Japanese, 釧路, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 兵庫県南部の孤立社寺林における林縁効果の季節変化

    岩崎 絢子, 石井 弘明

    日本生態学会51回大会, 2004, Japanese, 日本生態学会, 釧路, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • 水溶性腐植物質の動態と構造特性

    浅川 大地, 望月 秀将, 鈴木 武志, 石井 弘明, 金澤 洋一, 藤嶽 暢英

    日本腐植物質学会第20回講演会, 2004, Japanese, 日本腐植物質学会, 千葉, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • 環境配慮行動における日米比較研究

    小林知博, Ishii, H, 梶原晃

    日本グループダイナミクス学会第51回大会, 2004, Japanese, 名古屋, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • リター及び土壌中の水溶性腐植物質の採取法についての検討

    望月 秀将, 浅川 大地, 鈴木 武志, 大塚 紘雄, 石井 弘明, 金澤 洋一, 藤嶽 暢英

    日本土壌肥料学会, 2004, Japanese, 日本土壌肥料学会, 福岡, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Seasonal variation of edge effects on the vegetation, light environment and microclimate of primary, secondary and artificial forest fragments in southeastern Hyogo Prefecture.

    ISHII Hiroaki, IWASAKI A, SATO S

    IUFRO International Workshop on Landscape Ecology 2004, 2004, English, 未記入, Tsukuba, Japan, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • Seasonal variation of edge effects on the vegetation, light environment and microclimate of primary, secondary and artificial forest fragments in southeastern Hyogo Prefecture

    Ishii, H, Iwasaki, A, Sato, S

    IUFRO International Workshop on Landscape Ecology, 2004, English, Tsukuba, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • How Douglas-fir establishes its crown at maturity and maintains is in old age.

    ISHII Hiroaki

    10th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility., 2004, English, 未記入, Stevenson, WA., International conference

    Others

  • Biomass and decomposition of dead branches in the canopy of 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees.

    KADOTANI T, ISHII Hiroaki

    10th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility., 2004, English, 未記入, Stevenson, WA., International conference

    Poster presentation

  • 里山広葉樹二次林におけるコバノミツバツツジの萌芽更新による個体群動態

    相村 英範, 石井 弘明, 金澤 洋一, 後藤 義明

    第50 回日本生態学会大会講演要旨集, Mar. 2003, Japanese, 日本生態学会, つくば国際会議場, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • The importance of morphological reiteration of branches in generating complexity in forest canopies.

    ISHII Hiroaki, FORD E D

    Proceedings of the 4th North American Forest Ecology Workshop., 2003, English, 未記入, Oregon, USA., International conference

    Oral presentation

  • The importance of morphological reiteration in generating complexity in forest canopies

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D, Kennedy, M

    4th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, 2003, English, Corvallus, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • How Douglas-fir establishes its crown at maturity and maintains is in old age.

    Ishii, H

    10th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, 2003, English, Carson, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Designing a new forestry for sustainable management of landscape-level biodiversity.

    Ishii, H, Taniguchi, S

    Asia International Symposium on Agriculture, 2003, English, Kobe, Japan, International conference

    [Invited]

    Nominated symposium

  • Biomass and decomposition of dead branches in the canopy of 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees

    Kadotani, T, Ishii, H

    10th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, 2003, English, Carson, USA, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Amount and decomposition of coarse woody debris in the canopy of old-growth Douglas-fir trees. Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility

    ISHII Hiroaki, JOMURA M, KADOTANI T

    9th Annual Scientific Conference, 2003, English, 未記入, Carson, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Amount and decomposition of coarse woody debris in the canopy of old-growth Douglas-fir trees

    Ishii, H, Kadotani, T, Jomura, M

    9th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, 2003, English, Carson, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • 林床チシマザサの除去がダケカンバ林の水分導体に与える影響

    Ishii, H, 小林剛, 田畑あずさ, 原登志彦, 隅田明洋, 植村滋, 高橋耕一

    日本生態学会49回大会, Mar. 2002, Japanese, 仙台, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • ダケカンバの光合成機能の環境ストレスに対する応答

    田畑あずさ, 小林 剛, Ishii, H, 隅田明洋, 原 登志彦, 植村滋, 高橋耕一, 小川健一, 江藤典子, 田中亮一, 田中 歩

    日本生態学会49回大会, Mar. 2002, Japanese, 仙台, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • カムチャッカ半島中央低地帯における山火事後の森林の二次遷移の空間パターン

    Ishii, H, 本間航介, 原登志彦, 隅田明洋, Dolezal, J, 奥田将己, V. Vetrova, M.Vyatkina

    日本生態学会49回大会, Mar. 2002, Japanese, 仙台, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • Age-related development of crown structure in coastal Douglas-fir trees

    Ishii, H, McDowell, N

    3rd International Canopy Conference, 2002, English, Cairns, Australia, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Age-related development of canopy structure and its ecological functions

    Ishii, H, Tanabe, S, Hiura,T

    3rd International Canopy Conference, 2002, English, Cairns, Australia, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Age-related development of crown structure in coastal Douglas-fir trees.

    Ishii, H, McDowell, N

    7th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, Mar. 2001, English, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • Survival of Pseudotsuga menzesii as a long-lived pioneer species in old-growth forest.

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D

    Joint Symposium of the Ecological Society of America and British Ecological Society, 2000, English, Orlando, USA, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Persistence and change in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest and the ecology of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), a long-lived pioneer

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D

    43rd Symposium of the International Association for Vegetation Science, 2000, English, Nagano, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • A canopy perspective of community dynamics of an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest.

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D

    6th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, 2000, English, Carson, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • 北アメリカ北西部 Pseudotsuga-Tsuga 温帯針葉樹林における林冠研究ー樹冠の成長・維持と林冠の発達ー

    Ishii, H, Ford,E.D

    日本生態学会46回大会, Mar. 1999, Japanese, 松本, Domestic conference

    Poster presentation

  • アメリカ北西部の温帯針葉樹林における P. menziesii 老齢木の樹冠維持機構

    Ishii, H

    日本生態学会46回大会, Mar. 1999, Japanese, 松本, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • Maximum tree height and vertical development of an old-growth coniferous forest in southwestern Washington State, USA

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D

    4th Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, 1998, English, Carson, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Crown form and crown rejuvenation in old-growth Douglas-fir

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D

    3rd Annual Scientific Meeting, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, 1997, English, Carson, USA, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • Effects of morphological constraints and herbivory on growth and ramet demography of Hydrangea hirta in a light-limited environment

    Ishii, H, Takeda, H

    81st Ecological Society of America Meeting, Aug. 1996, English, Providence, USA, International conference

    Poster presentation

  • Modeling branch growth in old-growth Douglas-fir

    Ishii, H, Ford, E.D

    Pacific Ecology Conference, 1996, English, Bamfield, Canada, International conference

    Oral presentation

  • コアジサイの樹形と個体群動態ー形態的制限が成長・動態に及ぼす影響ー

    Ishii, H, 武田博清

    日本森林学会104回大会, Mar. 1995, Japanese, 札幌, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • コアジサイのモジュール個体群動態

    Ishii, H, 武田博清

    日本生態学会41回大会, Mar. 1994, Japanese, 福岡, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

  • コアジサイのモジュール構造と季節変化

    Ishii, H, 武田博清

    日本生態学会40回大会, Mar. 1993, Japanese, 松江, Domestic conference

    Oral presentation

Association Memberships

  • International Society of Arboriculture

    2006 - Present
  • Society of American Foresters

    1998 - Present
  • 日本生態学会

  • 日本森林学会

Research Projects

  • Evaluating physiological plasticity of trees to climate change using functional trait variation of xylem anatomy

    石井 弘明, 榎木 勉, 鍋嶋 絵里, 宮崎 祐子, 東 若菜, 鵜川 信, 高木 正博

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Kobe University, 01 Apr. 2020 - 31 Mar. 2024

    (1)宮崎大学演習林のスギクローン試験地において、スギ品種ごとの肥大成長速度、木部組織および水分通道の違いについて、木部資料の採取および測定機器の設置によって調査した。 (2)スギの物質生産に遺伝および環境要因が及ぼす影響を明らかにするために,複数の地域に設置された共通圃場において,品種による生産量,窒素利用,成長様式などの違いを定量 化する。 (3)成長特性の異なるスギ2系統の形成層帯で発現する遺伝子群の季節変化を把握するため、2系統4個体ずつから採取した組織についてRNA-seqを行った。 (4)愛媛大学農学部附属演習林において、スギ品種ごとの年輪試料採取を行い、安定同位体比測定のための試料調整を行った。 (5)鹿児島大学高隈演習林にて、スギ6品種の細根形質を調べたところ、細根形質の品種間差を確認したが、斜面位置にともなう細根形質の順応的変化は検出されなかった。

  • Effects of tree cutting on plant and animal communities in forest canopy: implication from old-growth Yakusugi forest in Yakushima Island

    佐伯 いく代, 石井 弘明, 東 若菜, 長田 典之, 太田 民久

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), University of Tsukuba, 01 Apr. 2020 - 31 Mar. 2023

    本研究の目的は、屋久島のヤクスギ林を対象として、林冠生態系の生物多様性の特徴とそれが維持されるのに必要な物質の動態を調査し、これらが森林伐採などの人為的攪乱によってどのように変化するのかを明らかにすることである。林冠は、生物多様性の高い空間として知られているが、人がアプローチしづらいため、科学的なデータが不足している。申請者らは、木登り技術を利用し、ヤクスギの巨木の林冠生態系について詳細な調査を行いたいと考えている。2020-2021年度は、新型コロナウイルス感染症の拡大により、現地調査やサンプル採集などを予定どおり実施することが困難であった。しかし、感染者数が比較的低く抑えられていた時期に、調査地を訪れることができ、ヤクスギの樹上の生物群集について調査を実施することができた。具体的には、調査対象とするヤクスギ個体に登攀し、林冠に堆積した落葉や土壌を採集した。採集は、1個体につき、高さの異なる2地点からとし、林冠に着生する植物などへの影響がなるべく出ない場所を選ぶこととした。採集したサンプルを対象として、ツルグレン法により、土壌動物の抽出を行った。抽出した土壌動物群集はエタノールに固定し、DNAを抽出した後、ミトコンドリアDNAのシトクロームオキシダーゼサブユニットI(COI)領域を対象としてDNAメタバーコーディング解析を実施した。その結果、無脊椎動物に由来する塩基配列(OTU;Operational taxonomic unit)を多数、検出することができた。これは、林冠に堆積した落ち葉や土壌をすみかとして、多様な生物が生息していることを示唆している。また、調査対象木の樹齢が比較的若い個体であっても、採集箇所によっては多様な土壌動物が生息していることが明らかとなった。

  • 黒田 慶子

    科学研究費補助金/基盤研究(B), Apr. 2016 - Mar. 2019

    Competitive research funding

  • 石井 弘明

    学術研究助成基金助成金/挑戦的萌芽研究, Apr. 2016 - Mar. 2019, Principal investigator

    Competitive research funding

  • 黒田 慶子

    科学研究費一部基金/基盤研究(B)特設, Apr. 2013 - Mar. 2016

    Competitive research funding

  • Effects of heavy thinning on ecosystem functions of mature Japanese cypress plantation

    OKANO Tetsuo, YASUE Koh, SHIROTA Tetsuoh, ISHII Hiroaki

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Shinshu University, 2010 - 2012

    We surveyed the effects of heavy thinning on biodiversity and productivity of 75 years old Japanese cypress plantations. Understory vegetation was well developed, which net primary production was estimated as 15% of terrestrial part of plantation. However, the canopy closure of Japanese cypress decreased biodiversity of understory vegetation. We concluded that the effects of heavy thinning on ecosystem function are temporal, which limited for 15 years.

  • 石井 弘明

    科学研究費補助金/基盤研究(B), 2011, Principal investigator

    Competitive research funding

  • 石井 弘明

    科学研究費補助金/若手研究(B), 2008, Principal investigator

    Competitive research funding

  • 金澤 洋一

    科学研究費補助金/基盤研究(B), 2005

    Competitive research funding